Category Archives: Nudiste

    Compilation gorge profonde escort girl athis mons

    compilation gorge profonde escort girl athis mons

    Quest'anno il Ministero di Grazia e Giustizia non ha concesso il permesso per essere in diretta nelle carceri milanesi. Una scelta in linea con le decisioni che tendono a isolare sempre più i detenuti, ad impedire di avere rapporti con il mondo esterno. Ma non ci siamo fermati. In questi giorni abbiamo incontrato molti detenuti registrando i loro auguri di buone feste per amici e parenti.

    Parole che verranno messe in onda domenica 25 dicembre dalle 10 alle E sempre in quelle due ore, telefonando allo Sharishan familia pace e buone cose a tutti, cliccando sul disegno in basso, troverete il mio messaggio per voi. Un messaggio che rivolgo a tutti, mentre attraversiamo assieme questa estesa pianura "un altro viaggio" Possa Devel esaurire tutti i nostri desideri più profondi con il nuovo anno. Fine della più grande baraccopoli di Francia.

    Solamente 24 famiglie coinvolte nel progetto di inserimento. Seduti al sole, gli uomini continuano a giocare a carte. Tuttavia, da qui a qualche giorno, la più grande baraccopoli di Francia non sarà che mucchio di rovine e di rifiuti. Da due anni, circa Rom occupano questo terreno situato a Saint-Ouen, Seine-Saint- Denis, nel quartiere dei magazzini in piena riorganizzazione. La città di Parigi, proprietaria del terreno, e quella di Saint-Ouen hanno firmato un accordo per costruirvi alloggi sociali.

    Indesiderabili, i Rom sono dunque pregati di andare altrove. Ventiquattro famiglie sono state selezionate dalla DDASS per integrarsi in un "villaggio d'inserimento". Gli altri sono invitati a lasciare la Francia. Domani, una seconda partenza dovrebbe contare nuovamente un centinaio di Rom. Quanti rifiutano questi ritorni riceveranno un'ingiunzione a lasciare il territorio francese OQTF.

    Quanto alle voci di un'espulsione dal campo condotta dalle forze di polizia e prevista domani, Paul Planque, primo assistente del sindaco di Saint-Ouen, rassicura "Non siamo assolutamente in una fase d'espulsione". Accaldate, molte famiglie hanno già lasciato la baraccopoli per altri terreni. A fianco delle baracche di fortuna in lamiera, il vecchio immobile dell'EDF è già praticamente deserto. Al primo piano, la famiglia Covaciu si fa discreta. I genitori ed i loro quattro figli sono tra i fortunati che usufruiranno del "villaggio d'inserimento".

    Situato in rue de Clichy, sempre nella zona dei docks, questo terreno accoglierà prima di tutto roulottes attrezzate e poi, entro otto mesi, 25 case mobili. I bambini saranno scolarizzati ed i genitori accompagnati verso mestieri autorizzati. La madre vorrebbe fare lavori di casa, il padre, lavorare nella ristorazione.

    Sinora la famiglia ha vissuto della vendita di ferraglia e di mendicità. All'interno della baraccopoli, le selezioni suscitano gelosie e incomprensioni. La sua sorellina, Bianca, 8 anni, e secondo tutti, una scolara modello.

    Sette altre famiglie con problemi sanitari saranno prese in carico. All'interno di progetti simili, solo 21 famiglie sono state selezionate a Saint-Denis, e 18 a Aubervilliers. Occorre una visione a scala regionale, soprattutto quando l'Île-de-France è la regione più ricca d'Europa. Si tratta di una nuova tappa della politica dello Stato che accompagna alcune famiglie e ne espelle altre.

    Non è una novità, l'abbiamo già visto a Saint-Denis e Aubervilliers. A Saint-Ouen, le grida d' allarme delle associazioni e delle famiglie finalmente sono state ascoltate. Solo, sono state scelte appena 24 famiglie su Le altre sono invitate a lasciare il terreno o il territorio. Ma questi cittadini europei, che hanno un progetto di vita in Francia, torneranno inevitabilmente ed in tempi molto brevi.

    Sono i capri espiatori dello Stato. A livello di rispondere all'uguaglianza dei diritti europei, li si tratta come cittadini di seconda scelta.

    Lo Stato è troppo repressivo, non abbastanza nell'esame individuale. Con le sue officine industriali ed i terreni abbandonati, questo dipartimento accoglie molti mal-alloggiati.

    Contrariamente ad altri siti, come l'Hauts-de-Seine, l'espulsione non è immediata. E' una soluzione transitoria accettabile per rispondere all'urgenza dell'indegnità delle baraccopoli e rimettere queste persone nel diritto all'abitare. La loro prima richiesta è d'integrarsi, di accedere ad alloggi di diritto comune e ad un impiego, di uscire dal regime transitorio della Romania e della Bulgaria i rumeni e i bulgari non possono accedere in Francia che a 62 mestieri - NDLR.

    Propos recueillis par M. Un'indicazione della mancanza di interesse su questi argomenti è l'assenza di dati precisi sui Rom morti sotto il nazismo. Gli attivisti Rom indicano una cifra tra Molte delle uccisioni avvennero lontano dai riflettori e non vennero documentate, altre vittime furono elencate come Ebree. Inoltre furono pochissimi i sopravvissuti, soltanto 13 Rom fecero ritorno dai campi di sterminio in Belgio [ Sono stati esclusi dalla Wiedergutmachung la riparazione per i crimini di guerra adducendo il fatto che non sarebbero stati perseguitati per motivi razziali, ma a causa della loro attitudine antisociale.

    E' diventato quasi impossibile convincere l'opinione pubblica che anche i Rom hanno sofferto un genocidio. Anche recentemente Yehuda Bauer, direttore dello Yad Vashem Memorial Centre, ha affermato che a differenza degli Ebrei, i Rom non erano un obiettivo centrale della soluzione finale, ma soltanto un "elemento di fastidio".

    Lo stesso Tribunale di Norimberga non fece mai menzione sui Rom, e vennero poi classificati, come i popoli di pelle scura, come "razzialmente distinti" e di "sangue alieno". E' vero che sino al , a differenza degli Ebrei, i Rom prestarono servizio militare nella Wehrmacht, da cui furono deportati direttamente ad Auschwitz, come ricorda il sopravvissuto Walter Stanoski Winter cfr.

    La discriminazione in Europa nasce ben prima del nazionalsocialismo, e fu comune in tutto il continente. In Francia, un primo censimento per identificare Rom e girovaghi, venne fatto nel Nel , venne introdotto un carnet antropometrico per regolare la loro circolazione,completo difotografie e impronte digitali; rimase in vigore sino al Dal , i Rom in Germania furono confinati in campi speciali, ripresi poi anche in Austria.

    Oggi sono sotto attacco aperto di politici che dovrebbero conoscerli meglio. I ripetuti sforzi di alcuni titolati accademici Rom,come Ian Hancock, autore di "Risposte al Porrajmos: Questo testo riprende tutta una serie di vecchi stereotipi, che emergono nella società quando, si discute da annisull'opportunità o meno di erigere a Berlino un monumento che ricordi l'Olocausto dei Rom.

    Il riconoscere il destino degli Ebrei europei ha reso coscienti sul percolo del latente antisemitismo e ha profondamente cambiato l'attitudine europea nel dopoguerra. Lo stesso non è accaduto per i Rom, tuttora prigionieri di vecchi stereotipi e di un impunito antiziganismo oggi vigoroso come nell'anteguerra.

    Karin Waringo è giornalista indipendente e ricercatrice. Preciso che non mi interessa il merito se prestare il servizio militare per i Gitani sia legittimo o meno, visto che nelle varie comunità, anche in Italia , ci sono stati diversi esempi in questo senso.

    Articolo interessante comunque per conoscere qualcosa sulla vita delle varie comunità nel mondo. I giovani sono riluttanti. Si nascondono dalla polizia, non hanno documenti e non si spostano più nei villaggi vicini per paura dell'esercito. E' il caso di Harold, gitano di 19 anni, che si nasconde da sei mesi. Spaventato e con le mani grondanti sudore, si nascose dietro il banco di un negozio.

    Vive nel timore del servizio militare, senza uscire di casa o di città, né frequenta più l'Università, perché gli manca il libretto militare. Questo [servizio militare] è una cosa inventata dai gadjé [chi non è Rom NDR] - e noi non siamo abituati a quegli orari definiti, neanche a maneggiare le armi e tanto meno a lasciare le nostre famiglie per tutto questo tempo.

    Il popolo Rom - come si autodefinisce - è considerato gruppo etnico dal col governo di Andrés Pastrana. Migrati dall'India attorno all'anno si sono dispersi in differenti paesi, senza considerarsi appartenenti a nessuno di questi. Arrivarono in Colombia in epoca coloniale, per sfuggire alle persecuzioni [europee]. Nei secoli i Rom hanno continuato a mantenere distanti i loro figli dai gadjè per preservare la purezza del loro sangue e infine, della loro cultura.

    Ma sinora non hanno ottenuto alcuna risposta. La risposta di Juan Guillermo Rojas, comandante del battaglione, è stata: Se è parte di un gruppo etnico, posso anche congedarlo. Non ho l'autorità per assumere una simile decisione. I portavoce del Ministero della Difesa informano che dal i gitani sono considerati minoranza etnica, ma che non esiste una legge che dica che debbano essere esonerati dal servizio militare.

    Soltanto chi si dichiara indigeno tra i gruppi riconosciuti come minoranza etnica gli altri sono i gitani e gli afrocolombiani ,dal hanno il diritto di non prestare servizio militare "al fine di proteggere la diversità etnica e culturale della Nazione".

    Ora i leaders gitani, chiedono che anche a loro sia garantito il medesimo diritto. Secondo la comunità, in tutta la storia dei gitani in Colombia, solo due sono stati arruolati nell'esercito. Sul suo caso il Ministero non si pronuncia, dato che non esiste un registro etnico di quanti prestino servizio militare. Yiyo Gómez è dell'opinione che i membri della comunità dovrebbero prestare servizio: Altri gitani stanno elaborando un progetto che permetta loro di essere esonerati. Il coordinatore generale di Prorom Proceso Organizativo del Pueblo Rom de Colombia sta valutando se questo sia possibile.

    Non saremmo buoni soldati e poi siamo una minoranza di duemila persone. La leva obbligatoria non cambierebbe con la nostra presenza. I gitani in tutto il mondo sono organizzati secondo leggi proprie, basata sul rispetto e l'ordine famigliare, e il valore della persona si giudica dal mantenimento della parola data.

    In Colombia i gitani si dedicano a lavorare i metalli e sono commercianti nati. Le donne praticano l'arte della divinazione. Parlano una lingua propria chiamata romanés e vivono uniti in gruppi chiamati kumpanías, dove i gadjé non sono ben visti. L'ultimo paio di settimane ci hanno offerto un numero di performances esaltanti delle cosiddette bande Zingare, che variano dal sound neo-gypsy della Mahala Rai Band agli ottoni della Fanfare Ciocarlia - i cui suoni ipnotici hanno ammaliato il pubblico nei recenti concerti tenuti al Quattro gig di Shibuya, Tokyo.

    Ma forse il piatto forte deve ancora arrivare, con le prossime esibizioni dei Taraf de Haidouks. L'esuberante "banda degli onorati banditi" proverà a collegarsi con lo spirito degli spettatori giappobnesi durante il programmato tour Time of Gypsies Vol. Ma è corretto tutto questo parlare di Zingari e musica zingara? Poi improvvisamente da un po' di tempo la gente ha iniziato a dire 'Oh no, non è corretto, chiamiamoli Rom' Ma se gli Zingari si chiamano tra loro Zingari, questo è solo un problema dei non-Zingari.

    Non è un insulto, dipende tutto da come lo si dice. E' un dibattito davvero sterile. Non interessa a nessuno, a parte quelli che vogliono un mondo troppo pulito, piatto e senza montagne. Winter insiste di nion essere un etnomusicologo, ma è stata la sua ricerca di musicisti in Romania che ha portato alla nascita dei Taraf de Haidouks nel Da allora, i musici da Clejani, Romania, hanno iniziato a suonare nei locali, tre giorni e tre notti durante i matrimoni, girando il mondo e apparendo nei film, incluso il giapponese Il vento piangente titolo giapponese: Hanno registrato quattro album e stanno già lavorando per il prossimo CD, mentre in Giappone dovrebbe uscire a breve il DVD che ripercorre la loro carriera.

    Johnny Depp, che è apparso nel film The Man Who Cried assieme ai Taraf de de Haidouks, li descrive come il suo gruppo preferito e li scarrozza nei party privati a Los Angeles, mentre il designer-stilista Yoji Yamamoto li ama talmente che oltre a averli presentati alla sua collezione di Parigi, se potesse li avrebbe fatti sfilare in passerella.

    Con questo, Winter intende la libertà stilistica dei musicisti zingari, comparata a come si intende la musica folclorica nei termini di armonia, ritmo e improvvisazione. Sottolinea inoltre che non esiste un repertorio tanto vasto di musica zigana tra le varie comunità sparse in Europa. Invece, sono molto varie le radici interpretative. A parte un ristretto numero di "its" come "Gelem Gelem", i musicisti tendono ad adattarsi alla musica del paese dove vivono, spiega.

    Ad una prima impressione, risulta evidente che la differenza tra Taraf de Haidouks e Fanfare Ciocarlia è che il suono dei Taraf si basa su violini e strumenti a corda, a differenza dei fiati che spingono la Ciocarlia.

    Ci sono la Moldavia, e poi la Transilvania. Oltenia, Valacchia, dove Taraf de Haidouks e il resto [del paese] ha una tradizione e un modo di vita completamente differente". Mentre la musica dei Balcani è di solito molto veloce, Taraf de Haidouks non carica il coro con la stess intensità della Ciocarlia. La strumentazione tipica della regione include violini e cimbali - strumenti dolci, il cui suono [Winter] paragona al tocco di un pianoforte, quando percuote le corde con i martelletti.

    In questo tour, i Taraf de Haidouks schiereranno due violini, un cimbalo, due fisarmoniche, un fiato e tre cantanti, uno dei quali sarà aggiungerà un violino al palcoscenico. La descrizione di Winter rende l'impressione di un'entità piuttosto anarchica. Dice che la band non ha mai avuto un leader. Compreso Nicolae Neascu, l'ultimo violinista settantenne che è stato un simbolo - ma non un leader - della banda, prima di morire due anni fa.

    Viceversa, ogni solista si trasforma in leader - finché dura l'assolo. Ma questo non è tanto un riflesso d come si intende la tipica banda zingara, dice. E' più un riflesso dello stile deiTaraf de Haidouks e del loro approccio vitale e istintivo. Comunque, rassicura Winter, il pubblico giapponese sarà immediatamente catturato dal loro entusiasmo.

    Nel suo discorso all'inaugurazione, Paul Spiegel, ex presidente del Consiglio Centrale Ebreo, chiese al Governo di non dimenticare gli obblighi verso le altre minoranze che avevano subito le atrocità naziste - ora che aveva fatto la sua parte con il suo impegno verso la comunità ebraica. Da quando ha preso il timone del Consiglio Ebreo nel , Spiegel ha assunto l'incarico di parlare anche per tutti i gruppi di minoranza la cui voce, secondo lui, non arriva al Governo. Il monumento dovrebbe essere eretto a sud del Reichstag, dove è ospitato il Parlamento.

    Il Governo si è impegnato per finanziare la costruzione con 2 milioni di euro. Il segretario federale alla cultura, Bernd Neumann, ha affermato in una conferenza stampa che il lavoro svolto sinora ha permesso di concordare quanto dovrà essere scritto sulla piastra alla base del monumento. Ha sottolineato che il suo incontro a maggio con Romani Rose era ancora consuntivo e che i partiti politici dovevano essere consultati sul piano finale.

    Lotta continua All'ultima riunione di maggio un piccolo gruppo, Alleanza Sinti, si disse contraria alla proposta di omettere i nomi dei diversi gruppi Rom sulla placca. Riteneva che tutti quanti avevano patito la persecuzione nazista, dovessero essere ricordati, e per questo ha cercato alleanze tra il partito Liberale e quello Socialdemocratico.

    Il 17 luglio, Neumann chiese a Romani Rose di tornare al tavolo negoziale, perché venisse presa in considerazione la proposta di Alleanza Sinti. Ma Rose ritiene il CCGSR l'unica voce rappresentativa di Sinti e Rom, e quindi ha rifiutato di continuare i negoziati, cominciando invece una campagna contro i ritardi del governo.

    Gli esperti ritengono che oltre 15 anni di baruffe tra gruppi ebraici, organizzazioni civiche e parlamento occorse in passato per la costruzione del Monumento per gli Ebrei Assassinati, possono essere un barometro delle attese di Rom e Sinti per il loro monumento. L'architetto israeliano Dani Karavan ha vinto il concorso per il progetto: Ha già eretto altri monumenti in Germania, incluso quello che fa bella mostra di sé davanti al Parlamento a Berlino.

    L'Indépendant - 12 aprile - Pirenei Orientali - da: Un caso unico in Francia accade a Perpignan, nel cuore della zona Saint- Jacques. La famiglia Bouziès è la sola a contare sei generazioni grazie alla nascita di uno pro-pro-pro-nipote il febbraio scorso. Jaia è caduta dal letto. E' la decana delle donne di Saint- Jacques, "la Jeanne" come la chiamano tuttora. Lei, Incarnation Bouziès, nata Reyès, 90 anni. Bis-bis-bis nonna del piccolo Paul nato in febbraio scorso. Nos en cuidarem nosaltres" il medico deve farla tornare a casa.

    Ce ne occuperemo noi. Tutti cugini, tutti della stessa famiglia, in un modo o nell'altro. Ed oltre, una dimostrazione quotidiana ed unica. Sei generazioni strettamente legate tra il ed il e nessun segno di dispersione. Stessa città, stessa zona, stessa via. Rue des Remparts Saint -Jacques 20, è qui che i Bouziès hanno firmato il loro patto di vita in comune. Un arco teso tra il rispetto dei "vecchi" e le frecce infiammate di una sfilza di bambini-re.

    Nella sala da pranzo di Manuel alias "Papa Vell", la credenza bianca smaltata, che crolla sotto il peso dei soprammobili, è sospeso su il nido intergenerazionale dei Bouziès. Con "Mama Vella", hanno avuto quattro figli, tredici nipoti, venti pronipoti ed una pro-pro nipote. Sei generazioni al totale! E i nomi che giocano anacronisticamente a cavallina tra vecchio e nuovo testamento, i modelli delle serie televisive americane ed i nomi dati di padre in figlio.

    Tra Giovanna, Esaie, Samuel, Isaac, Madison, Falone e poi Cubana, non c'è uno solo giorno senza che tutta la famiglia non sia in contatto. E "Papa Vell" riconosce con voce dal tono profondo "Ci sono momenti che perdo il filo con tutti questi nomi! Manuel, il patriarca Il pilastro, è lui e nessun altro.

    Quello la cui parola non si discute. Quello a cui atterrano tutte le interrogazioni dell'infanzia, le felicità e a volte i rovesci dell'età adulta. È un tipo di Dio-padre, orologio della genesi familiare, metronomo delle bugie e verità di fronte al tempo che passa. La mattina, mi ritrovo un figlio o un nipote sul divano. Nella cucina, scopro in seguito che mi hanno cucinato una bistecca. Tutti ci si raggruppa, ci si aiuta Se mio padre mi dice di non comperare quest'automobile ad esempio, allora lo ascolto Il patrimonio della famiglia Vagabondaggio vietato, matrimoni fortemente combinati, segreti conservati gelosamente.

    E le donne in questa famiglia labirintica? Non voglio che vada in piazza Cassanyes o piazza du Puig con l'automobile. Certo, i rapporti sono semplificati, le preoccupazioni di base, e tuttavia incessantemente segnate da un'opposizione nostalgica tra "la vita di prima" e la "vita moderna d'oggi". Si facevano i vecchi lavori, si tosavano gli animali, si vendeva il pizzo o del filo Si parlava il gitan, il kalo. Oggi, i giovani non lo capiscono neppure Eccetto uno dei nostri figli Paul, che fa il pastore Dai Bouziès, la vita si sgrana al figlio delle "assemblee" alla chiesa evangelica, situata a due porte della culla familiare.

    Sui tavolini da notte, sempre una bibbia. Sulla tavola, sempre l' escudella , il piatto tipico dei gitani. Una liturgia culinaria trasmessa di madre in figlia.

    Ma tra le generazioni, poche fotografie legate. Appena alcune flash di matrimonio ingialliti. Neppure nessun gioiello di famiglia. L'eredità materiale non fa parte della tradizione gitane. Uscita dell'ospedale dopo due giorni, passa i suoi giorni circondata dalla sua discendenza demoltiplicata. Suo padre durante la guerra di Cuba, la vendita di pizzi, di fili e di panni Novanta anni di memorie ed un temperamento di un'acutezza fantastica.

    E quando voglio qualcosa, bisogna che lo abbia! Ma li voglio tutti con me prima di morire e voglio essere sepolta senza le mie scarpe D'accordo, sembra una barzelletta E di cosa possono aver parlato, se è lecito?

    Comunque, è stato un incontro pubblico any use should include copyright to the World Bank and credit the photographer. E' aperta la caccia alla battutaccia, vi ricordo che non siete presidenti del consiglio, e che vi tocca farmi ridere son mica Bruno Vespa, io! A parte questo, e a parte le polemiche sull'utilità o meno del Decennio dell'Inclusione dei Rom , azzardo la mia ipotesi: Il resto, secondo me, è fumo. Posso sbagliarmi, fatemelo sapere. Dopo cinque anni trascorsi in italia, vivendo in condizioni indescrivibili, torna con il marito in romania.

    Lorel, cinque figli, campa recuperando tra i rifiuti napoletani rame e alluminio. Florin, in italia da otto anni, fa il muratore e vive in una bella casa. Nelle scorse settimane due casi di presunti tentati rapimenti hanno fatto la prima pagina dei giornali, proprio nel momento in cui il governo varava le nuove misure su clandestini e sicurezza.

    Ma è davvero tutta colpa dei rom? E quanti sono davvero quelli irregolari? Come si difendono dalle accuse di essere tutti ladri e malfattori? I tentativi di risposta nel servizio di Dinorah Cervini e Paul Nicol.

    Guarda il video modem Guarda il video adsl. In una polverosa strada di Mitrovica, tira il suo carro a lato della strada. Poi tira fuori il cacciavite dalla sua tasca destra. Svita le targhe con la registrazione del Kosovo e le pone all'interno. E' concesso girare senza targhe in questa parte della città, visto che le targhe del Kosovo qui non sono accettate. Dopo diversi posti di blocchi, quando il carro torna in territorio albanese, riavvita le targhe.

    In una regione dove ad otto anni dal conflitto tra le forze serbe e gli Albanesi del Kosovo le tensioni etniche rimangono alte, Ramic naviga tra due mondi chiaramente definiti, anche se non appartiene a nessuno dei due. Come le targhe del furgone, Ramic svita ed avvita la sua identità secondo la necessità e convenienza. A migliaia finirono nei campi temporanei, dove sono tuttora. Come risultato del conflitto, molti Rom -termine a cui vanno aggiunti gli Askali di lingua albanesi e quelli che si chiamano Egizi - hanno adattato la loro identità per sopravvivere.

    Anche se Ramic si considera Rom, in qualche caso è più sicuro per lui dichiararsi Askali. Rimane incerto quando la regione riguadagnerà abbastanza stabilità perché Ramic possa dichiararsi senza problemi e i Rom facciano ritorno alle loro case.

    Si attende quest'anno un accordo finale, secondo il quale il Kosovo diventerebbe uno stato indipendente, un trionfo per gli Albanesi, ma una perdita devastante per i Serbi.

    In una terra dove tutti rincorrono una loro identità, i Rom - senza nazione e coesione - vivono sul punto di rottura.

    Molti chiedono soltanto di tornare a casa. Con l'indipendenza e possibili ulteriori violenze. Per questa minoranza, lo status del Kosovo è solo un'altra occasione per vuote promesse ed ulteriori dispersioni. Ramic annuisce ad un uomo in uniforme blu. Rallenta il furgone e si prepara a parlare albanese. Se il poliziotto è un Albanese, oggi Ramic sarà Askali.

    Il poliziotto guarda i documenti e riconoscendo la pronuncia di Ramic, gli si rivolge in serbo. Il Rom risponde con un sospiro trattenuto. Diversi kilometri più tardi, il carro si ferma di fronte al ponte che connette la Mitrovica settentrionale alla sua controparte albanese del sud. Parcheggia a diversi metri dal ponte ed aspetta. Situata nella parte più settentrionale del Kosovo, il confine con la parte serba di Mitrovica è considerato una delle aree più a rischio violenza.

    In una città dove una divisione tangibile separa un'etnia dall'altra, tanti i Serbi a nord che gli Albanesi a sud, sono particolarmente sensibili sulle conseguenze della possibile indipendenza del Kosovo. Ricorda le rovine fumanti delle case dei suoi vicini, quando cinque anni fa gli Albanesi attaccarono la città. Il villaggio è un obiettivo sensibile a causa della grande battaglia che nel Medio Evo vide l'esercito ottomano sconfiggere i Serbi, un evento che tuttora genera passioni nazionaliste tra i Serbi.

    I musulmani Albanesi sono visti come discendenti dell'oppressore Turco. L'enclave serba conta circa 15 famiglie Serbe e cinque case Rom. Micini teme che gli Albanesi vogliano bruciare il villaggio a predominanza serba e sta disperatamente cercando di vendere casa. Come molti Rom, d'altronde, non ha i documenti giusti per farlo. La nera stufa a legna riscalda la stanza vuota, illuminata dalla luce elettrica. Dice che si preoccupa di mandare i suoi figli al mercato.

    Quando hanno bisogno di noi per combattere ci dicono fratelli. Se no, dicono 'Zingari, andatevene. Micini è stato fortunato. Quando ci furono i disordini nel marzo , Micini non era a casa. Era a Pristina con diversi altri parenti maschi. Non poteva tornare da sua moglie e dai figli a Kosovo Polje, distante 12 kilometri e non vuole rivivere quel senso di impotenza per la terza volta.

    Se i Serbi che popolano il villaggio saranno forzati ad andare, dice, ai Rom non rimarrà altra scelta che partire pure loro. Molti Rom ora vivono nelle enclave serbe, piccoli villaggi persi nel Kosovo dove il cirillico prende il posto dell'alfabeto latino usato dagli Albanesi.

    Divenne soltanto marginalmente più sicuro identificarsi come Askali di lingua albanese. In una regione popolata da Rom che si dichiarano Askali, la guerra e le continue violenze hanno creato una variazione nell'auto-definizione.

    Ora ne i Rom ne gli Askali sono realmente al sicuro. Tutti subiscono le conseguenze della guerra. Disegna un cerchio nell'aria. Il pane si sta rompendo in pezzi," dice, simbolizzando la creazione dei Rom, Askali ed Egizi. Siamo tutti Rom e siamo sempre i più poveri.

    I Rom sono il gruppo di minoranza più povero del Kosovo, agli ultimi posti nella scolarizzazione e col più alto tasso di disoccupazione. Con pochi soldi e nessun posto dove andare, molti non hanno potuto lasciare la regione dove le loro case sono state date alle fiamme nel Polansky recentemente ha condotto interviste orali a Rom sopravissuti all'Olocausto e dice che l'attuale situazione per i Rom del Kosovo è una pari atrocità. In nessun altro posto la sofferenza dei Rom in Kosovo è più evidente che nel campo per rifugiati inquinato dal piombo nella parte nord di Mitrovica.

    Uno di loro, Cesmin Lug, si trova al limite della parte serba di Mitrovica. Cumuli di metallo, da cui ha origine il piombo, percorrono il campo di baracche di latta. La casa di Sebiha Bajrami è dipinta di rosa e giallo. All'interno, due donne lavorano una pasta e la pongono sulla stufa che riscalda le due stanze. La loro è una delle 40 famiglie che hanno scelto di vivere nel campo contaminato, invece che nel nuovo campo dall'altra parte della strada. La WHO ha ripetuto che l'esposizione all'aria, all'acqua e al cibo, porta a danni irreversibili al cervello.

    Le conseguenze sono più profonde per i bambini. Bajrami, che è anche una giornalista rom per la locale stazione radio serba, ha contribuito alla creazione di un'organizzazione femminile che produce tovaglie e tessuti.

    Qui non è più salubre e sicuro. Quando Bajrami deve avventurarsi nella parte sud di Mitrovica, prende determinate precauzioni. Non si riferisce mai a se stessa come Rom e parla solo albanese. Una volta, ricorda, fu accostata da un Albanese che aveva riconosciuto il suo nome. Trovami un altro lavoro da fare. Bajrami spera un giorno di aprire una stazione radio rom, una che suoni musica rom tradizionale e si occupi di politica dei Balcani.

    Ma prima, come tutti nel campo, vuol fare ritorno a casa. Una barriera con un pesante cancello, separa Bajrami e il resto di Mitrovica da Osterode, il nuovo campo dichiarato dall'UNMIK "libero da inquinamenti". Una guardia albanese osserva dal suo piccolo chiosco.

    Riconoscendo il camion bianco della Norwegian Church Aid, apre il cancello senza le solite procedure e domande. La OnG norvegese ha preso in carico la gestione del campo, una serie di baracche bianche e un edificio più alto. Nonostante i colori vivaci dei vestiti e delle tovaglie, il campo ha l'influsso austero di una base militare francese. L'asfalto sostituisce il fango dall'altra parte del cancello.

    I genitori accompagnano i bambini verso il presidio sanitario, un edificio di due stanze. Qui è iniziato il trattamento per quanti hanno sintomi di avvelenamento da piombo. La porta seguente, su una lavagna sono scritti "cane" e "gatto", qui c'è la scuola. Poi una scala conduce al centro femminile, dove si insegna igiene. Nonostante questi servizi, gli abitanti ripetono che quella non è casa loro.

    Ci hanno promesso acqua corrente ed elettricità per tutte le 24 ore, e riscaldamento. Qui l'inquinamento è migliore, ma i bambini sono ammalati per le condizioni di vita.

    Hasan Kelmendi, manager del campo per la Norwegian Church Aid conferma che la pressione dell'acqua è inconsistente e lo stesso vale per l'elettricità, ma questa è la situazione che vige in tutta Mitrovica. Ad ogni famiglia è assegnato una piccola stufa elettrica, che serve a poco quando manca la corrente, dice Gusani, che poi descrive le situazioni in cui si accende un piccolo fuoco sul pavimento per scaldarsi.

    Sono stanchi di vagare tra campi, regolamenti e cancelli. E' come vivere in un campo di concentramento. Permettono all'agenzia di controllare che entra nel campo. Poi Fouche ritiene che bruciare le batterie, da cui estrarre il piombo, peggiora il problema dell'inquinamento dei campi. Poi sottolinea che il nuovo campo di Osterode, che riunisce tre campi in uno, è una soluzione temporanea. Aggiunge che la meta ultima è il ritorno degli abitanti alle loro case.

    Il suono gutturale delle sillabe tedesche collide con il tono lirico del romanes mentre Feruz Jahirovic apre la porta e saluta la sua famiglia, una delle nuove nel campo. A differenza di Jahirovic, che ha passato otto anni nei campi, nove membri della sua famiglia hanno vissuto gli ultimi 15 anni a Munster, Germania. Si dividono due stanze in un edificio di mattoni rossi. Quella di Jahirovic è una del crescente numero di famiglie che hanno perso lo status di rifugiati all'estero e sono state forzate al ritorno.

    Il Consiglio d'Europa stima che oltre 1. Centomila, la maggior parte dalla Germania, sono a rischio di ritorno forzato. E' difficile per quei bambini interagire con i loro coetanei, dato che questi nuovi arrivi sono cresciuti in Germania e parlano tedesco. Arrivati ad Osterode un anno e mezzo fa, anche loro hanno lasciato una casa. Il ritorno dei rifugiati ha aumentato la pressione sulle autorità internazionali per trovare un posto dove i Rom possano vivere.

    A Mitrovica, si stanno costruendo nuove case, al posto delle rovine. Dal suo punto di vista Jahirovic guarda le nuove case che sorgeranno accanto al fiume Ibar a Mitrovica sud. Si ricorda di quando suo fratello aveva stanze spaziose, prima che una delle più ricche e vasta comunità rom fosse distrutta.

    Ha nove bambini, più di ogni altro ad Osterode. Jahirovic invece viveva in un villaggio vicino che è stato dato alle fiamme [ Il Consiglio dei Rifugiati Danese si èimpegnato a ricostruire le case di quanti siano in possesso della documentazione adeguata che certifichi che vivevano nel quartiere di Mitrovica sud.

    Norwegian Church Aid intende costruire le case anche per quanti non hanno documentazione, ma questa iniziativa appare più incerta.

    Mi interessano la libertà di lavorare, la sicurezza ed i miei bambini," dice Jahirovic guardando la recinzione del campo. Sino all'anno scorso, l'unica evidenza di quel quartiere erano resti di pareti di mattoni e muri sbriciolati.

    Per quanti faranno ritorno alla mahala, la sua posizione a Mitrovica sud significa un cambio di servizi e linguaggi. Quanti vivono nei campi ricevono i servizi sociali dal governo serbo ed anche i bambini frequentano le scuole serbe.

    Quanti faranno ritorno alla mahala dovranno andare nelle scuole albanesi e non riceveranno più aiuti dalla Serbia. Con queste incertezze alcuni Rom, come il loro leader Gusani, rifiutano di tornare nel loro vecchio quartiere. Come Gusani, molti Rom hanno timore di ritornare nel quartiere da cui sono stati espulsi. Dice Fouche che la forza internazionale di pace controllerà ogni due ore l'area, ma Gusani nega che nessun gliel'abbia mai comunicato.

    Se deve andarci da solo, dice di provenire dal quartiere Askali. Tina Gidzic, una donna rom di 20 anni, prova crampi allo stomaco quando guida verso il suo ex-villaggio, Dobrevo. La città ora è un cumulo di macerie osservabile dall'autostrada Pristina—Mitrovica. Lei nn ha speranze di ritorno. Gidzic ricorda di essere cresciuta col suono delle bombe e sua madre che le diceva di non uscire da casa.

    Suo fratello più giovane è nato a Preoce, una piccola enclave serba a 10 km. Anche se non sempre sono un bersaglio, ma si trovano sulla linea di fuoco, pensa Gidzic. Tina scende dalla macchina e rinchiude il cancello della nuova casa della sua famiglia, una struttura che apparteneva a suo nonno. Raggiunge sua madre, riscaldandosi in una stanza dove funziona la stufa. Sua madre, Miradija, piange ancora quando vede la foto della vecchia casa di Dobrevo. I Rom non sono tutti silenti sull'argomento indipendenza, neanche Gidzic lo è.

    Dopo otto anni di identità fluttuanti e in una terra che potrebbe mai essere la loro, alcuni Rom stanno reagendo. Gli attivisti criticano apertamente la missione ONU. Recentemente hanno prodotto un documento dove indicano i loro desideri rispetto al Kosovo indipendente. Tra le loro richieste la partecipazione alle decisioni sullo status del Kosovo, come pure la strategia di ritorno per i rifugiati.

    Continua a spostare le sue targhe e parla di una discussione avuta con un abitante di Kosovo Polje. Stanno considerando di iniziare un affare importando scarpe dall'Albania e rivendendole a buon mercato nel Kosovo. Poi si ferma, gli appare un sorriso sul volto e conclude "Se esisteremo ancora.

    Milano, 2 marzo Il poeta e difensore dei diritti umani autograferà il libro. Il Consiglio di Zona 4, pur condannando ogni forma di occupazione abusiva della proprietà privata e di quella pubblica, chiede che: Gli Zingari del campo avevano paura di tornare a vivere accanto ai vicini albanesi che li avevano cacciati nel Inoltre, tutti i loro bambini ora erano andati alle scuole serbe a Mitrovica nord per otto anni e non volevano imparare una nuova lingua prima di frequentare le scuole albanesi a sud.

    Naturalmente, i Serbi e questo Albanese non si videro mai di persona e non venne offerto nessun terreno. Ciononostante, andai da solo a Belgrado e dopo incontri con gli incaricati del governo, mi fu assicurato che se gli Zingari del campo volevano rimanere a nord, si sarebbe trovato un terreno per loro.

    I Rom che avevano già fatto ritorno al loro vecchio quartiere non vennero curati, nonostante mostrassero alti livelli di piombo un anno dopo aver lasciato i campi. Nel contempo, l'UNHCR convinse il governo del Kosovo ad assumere l'amministrazione dei campi, togliendo all'ONU la responsabilità degli Zingari dei campi che continuavano a morire di complicazioni legate all'avvelenamento da piombo.

    Nel loro mandato, i giudici UE dovevano consigliare e sorvegliare il sistema giudiziario kosovaro ed intervenire solo nei casi di "accadimento di serio crimine" che il governo del Kosovo rifiutava di perseguire. Anche se avevo coinvolto diversi avvocati nei casi contro l'ONU a favore degli Zingari dei campi, non era sin qui trapelato niente perché l'ONU tentava di nascondere le proprie responsabilità sotto lo scudo dell'immunità. Fidandomi dunque negli standard europei di giustizia, scrissi al capo della missione EULEX, chiedendo un appuntamento per discutere questo "grave crimine di negligenza infantile di massa", che dava come risultato oltre 80 morti e danni cerebrali irreversibili a tutti i bambini zingari nei campi.

    Guardando indietro, vedo un forte continuum francese in questa tragedia senza senso che dura da 11 anni: Forse la ragione è nella loro storia o nella loro tradizione. Durante la II guerra mondiale nella repubblica di Vichy chiamata anche Francia Libera i Francesi avevano più campi di concentramento solo per zingari 9 che qualsiasi altro paese d'Europa, Germania compresa.

    C'erano almeno 40 altri campi come Camp Gurs Pirenei Atlantici dove altri piccoli gruppi di Zingari erano detenuti per i lavori forzati. Considerando questi terribili fatti, non è difficile capire perché le truppe francesi rifiutarono di fermare gli Albanesi kosovari dalla pulizia etnica di 8. Bernard Kouchner non volesse perdere il suo tempo cercando di salvare 4. Dopo tutto, tradition is tradition. Naturalmente, non sono solo i Francesi ad avere responsabilità in questa tragedia senza senso.

    Nelle pagine seguenti leggerete di quanti avrebbero potuto aiutare e non l'hanno fatto. Tu, lettore, devi decidere se si meritano questi anti-premi Dal giugno , il Kosovo è stato amministrato dalle Nazioni Unite in base alla Risoluzione del Consiglio di Sicurezza. L'SRSG ha pieni poteri nello sviluppare qualsiasi azione ritenuta necessaria per il bene pubblico in Kosovo. In entrambe i casi, la maggior parte della gente rifiutava di andarsene e dovette essere evacuata a forza.

    Nonostante questi e molti altri precedenti, tutti gli SRSG hanno rifiutato di evacuare i Rom e gli Askali che dal vivono nei campi ONU costruiti su terreno contaminato. Anche se molti dei loro bambini hanno i più alti livelli di piombo nella letteratura medica, e molti sono nati con danni irreversibili al cervello a causa dell'avvelenamento da piombo, l'UNHCR incaricata dei campi sino al dicembre ha rifiutato di ottemperare alla richiesta della sua agenzia sorella ONU, l'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità, di evacuare immediatamente i campi e fornire cure urgenti.

    Tratta da Wikimedia Commons - clicca sull'immagine per vedere la mappa a grandezza naturale. Dei campi profughi in Kosovo avvelenati dal piombo, qui se n'è parlato parecchio, praticamente da quando esiste questo blog. Il mese scorso, mi è stato regalato un libretto in inglese non disponibile in Italia , con i nomi di tutti quanti hanno colpevolmente contribuito a creare questa situazione.

    Questa è la prima: L'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità gli aveva già detto che questo era il peggiore avvelenamento da piombo mai verificatosi in Europa e forse nel mondo. Questo libro ti dice, Nick, chi è stato responsabile di questa negligenza mortale e senza senso. Nessuna casa è stata bruciata. Gli Albanesi semplicemente hanno sventrato le case per sottrarne mattoni, infissi, porte e finestre.

    Anche se l'Armata di Liberazione del Kosovo ALK e gli estremisti di etnia albanese iniziarono questa tragedia senza senso durante l'estate , poterono farlo semplicemente perché le truppe NATO francesi permisero che questa pulizia etnica avesse luogo. Non successe in una sola notte. Ci vollero tre mesi perché tutte le famiglie rom e Askali circa 8.

    Presi una macchina in prestito e guidai verso la scena. Quando arrivai, molti Zingari stavano supplicando i soldati francesi armati di tutto punto di salvarli.

    Li raggiunsi, chiedendo ai soldati francesi di intervenire. Un ufficiale francese mi disse rudemente che le truppe NATO non erano una forza di polizia. Poi venni trattenuto e portato al quartiere generale dell'esercito francese in un albergo del centro città. Mi sequestrarono le foto e mi dissero che non avevo il permesso di ritornare nel settore francese del Kosovo. Una settimana dopo ritornai, usando un permesso stampa con un nome differente. Trovai circa Zingari di Mitrovica rifugiati in una scuola serba sul lato opposto del fiume Ibar.

    Non avevano cibo, né sapone. I bagni erano straripati. Ancora nessuna agenzia di aiuto li aveva scoperti; o, secondo qualcuno, li ignoravano. A metà settembre i Serbi rivolevano l'edificio per l'anno scolastico. Depositi di scorie tossiche circondavano il campo zingaro. Potevi odorare gli elementi tossici. Quando soffiava il vento, la polvere di piombo copriva tutto e rendeva difficile respirare. Poi sarebbero stati riportati alle loro case e protetti dalle truppe francesi o portati come rifugiati in un altro paese.

    Disse di essere un dottore. Comprendeva il pericolo di minaccia alle vite nel vivere su o accanto a depositi di scorie tossiche. A novembre tornai negli Stati Uniti per scrivere delle mie esperienze in Kosovo. Quando tornai la primavera successiva per visitare gli insediamenti delle minoranze in Kosovo e riportare delle loro condizioni alla Società per i Popoli Minacciati GFBV , visitai questi Zingari di Mitrovica. Non erano tornati alle loro case o in un paese terzo.

    Ora erano alloggiati in baracche temporanee, tutte su terreno contaminato. Ero anche scioccato di scoprire che il mio amico David Reily, 50 anni, era morto a gennaio nel suo appartamento a Pristina per un attacco di cuore. Tuttavia, fui incoraggiato perché il dr. Kouchner aveva ordinato alla propria squadra medica ONU di prendere campioni sanguigni dai bambini zingari che vivevano sui depositi tossici, per vedere se le loro vite fossero in pericolo. Ritornai negli USA prima che i risultati fossero resi noti.

    Ma quando ritornai in Kosovo la primavera seguente e trovai che gli Zingari vivevano ancora in questi tre campi, amministrati dall'Agenzia svizzera di Soccorso ACT e dal loro partner di sviluppo: Norwegian Church Aid, immaginai che la squadra medica di Kouchner avesse trovato il sito sicuro. Anche se io e Kouchner nel ci scambiammo della corrispondenza sulla situazione degli altri Rom e Askali, della loro mancanza di libertà di movimento in altre parti del Kosovo e sulla mancanza di aiuti umanitari, non vidi più Kouchner.

    Ora, vivendo a tempo pieno in Kosovo, mi tenevo in contatto regolare con gli Zingari dei campi posti su terreni tossici. Quando nel ACT e NCA smisero di consegnare cibo e prodotti igienici, iniziai a fornire agli Zingari quel poco aiuto che riuscivo a trovare.

    Poi alcuni dei bambini morirono. Frequentava l'asilo del campo, quando la sua maestra si accorse che Jenita stava perdendo la memoria e aveva difficoltà a camminare. La causa della morte fu diagnosticata in "herpes", un'infezione non fatale a meno di malfunzionamenti del sistema immunitario. Come per l'Aids, l'avvelenamento da piombo distrugge il sistema immunitario specialmente nei bambini di età inferiore ai sei anni. I risultati scioccarono tutti. I livelli di piombo in molti bambini erano più alti di quanto le apparecchiature mediche potessero misurare.

    Coppia trova una nuova vita a Lambton. La coppia che vive sposata a Watford, oggi ha prestato giuramento durante una cerimonia di cittadinanza a Londra. Per Anna, 57 anni, e Karel, 61 anni, il Canada offre la libertà e la pace che la coppia non ha mai avuto nel paese nativo.

    I Rom sono ampliamente discriminati in Europa, dice Mary Janes, una donna di Watford che assieme al marito Paul, ha aiutato i Kyncl a stabilirsi in Canada e superare la barriera linguistica.

    Per lei, si pensava che volesse migliorare il suo status sociale sposando un bianco. Karel è stato insultato e percosso ed Anna minacciata di continuo, tanto che aveva difficoltà a dormire.

    Hanno fatto richiesta dello status di rifugiati, che è stato loro negato nel E' stato allora che la comunità è intervenuta. Karel ha la patente di guida e lavora nelle costruzioni, mentre Anna ha un'attività in proprio di pulizie domestiche. Qui sono felici, gli piace vivere a Watford. Sono una risorsa per la comunità grazie al nostro interessamento.

    La coppia di sposi era arrivata in Canada ed aveva chiesto lo stato di rifugiati nel Video in inglese pubblicato dal Guardian. Per undici anni abbiamo tentato di far evacuare dall'ONU i campi rom in Kosovo dove i bambini hanno i più alti livelli di piombo nella letteratura medica.

    Dato che l'ONU non vuole ascoltare le nostre richieste a favore di questi bambini, stiamo promuovendo una petizione mondiale rivolta al Presidente Obama, chiedendogli di evacuare i campi meno di uomini, donne e bambini e di curarli presso le basi militari americane in Kosovo. Questo il link per firmare la petizione:. Vi chiedo di inoltrare questa mail ai vostri amici, il più possibile, e chiedere loro di aiutarci a salvare questi bambini e le loro famiglie.

    Sul tavolino tanti libri e due bicchieri di birra. So che la sera mi aspetta un compito non facile: Per fortuna il posto è tranquillo. Paul mi ha riassunto i capitoli principali, a cui ho dato una rapida scorsa, poi gli faccio alcune domande su quelle che mi sembrano le questioni chiave sollevate.

    Lui annuisce e si concentra nella traduzione in spagnolo di alcune sue poesie. Leggo con attenzione ma poca partecipazione l'introduzione di Pietro Marcenaro e poi quella sua. Passo alle pagine interne, scorro la prima parte sulla Spagna. E da questo momento termina la mia intenzione di leggere a caso e la mia improbabile carriera di critico.

    Perché quando passo distrattamente al secondo capitolo, la storia diventa un film breve e appassionante che non riesco ad abbandonare: Riconosco il loro modo di parlare e ricordare, le strade percorse, le loro vicissitudini, forse ne sento persino l'odore. Ho persino paura che qualcuno possa notare il mio turbamento.

    Cerco di calmarlo uscendo a fumare una sigaretta. A parte questo, cosa potete trovare in pagine, al prezzo di 18 euro? Chi già conosce l'autore, troverà la risposta ad una domanda che viene naturale farsi: Chi non lo conosce, potrà fare un viaggio introduttivo nella storia, cultura, religione, dei popoli rom e sinti in Europa e altrove. Polansky è nel contempo un antropologo severo ed un testimone partecipe.

    Le loro parole e la loro mente: Si misero a suonare, ed eruppe una musica che a decine di migliaia di km. Indian Rajasthan Gypsy dance. L'importante è approcciarlo con la serietà e la passione necessarie. L'amore delle madri per i loro figli mi ricorda l'amore della mia per i suoi sette figli. Infatti, ho notato che le madri, e in generale le famiglie gitane, sono molto più premurose di quanto non siano le famiglie europee o americane di oggi.

    Gli Zingari anziani non vengono messi in case di cura come fossero dei lebbrosi ma, al contrario, vengono accuditi e rispettati nella propria casa e dalla propria famiglia. Grazie Dio, per aver creato gli Zingari. Possano essi ereditare la terra, come Dio ha promesso loro! Credo, senza modestia, di essere stato fra i primi a parlare in Italia di Paul Polansky.

    Ho ritrovato nel gruppo di discussione Arcobaleno a Foggia il primo articolo di Polansky che tradussi in italiano. Sono passati solo 6 anni. Una testimonianza di come si vive va? Sono uscito, in tempo per incrociare un signore che a braccia trasportava un bambino in stato di incoscienza.

    Il bambino vestiva calzoncini, T-shirt ed era senza scarpe. Il braccio era rotto in due punti, trattenuti a malapena da qualche lembo di pelle. C'è una piccola clinica serba a solo 4 chilometri, ma i genitori hanno voluto che li accompagnassi a un altro ospedale più grande, a 10 Km. Tre anni fa, era stato costruito da Medicine du Monde di Grecia, per donarlo alla comunità serba. Mentre parcheggiavo il furgone, Dija, la nostra interprete, era già balzata a terra col bimbo in braccio, che nel frattempo era rinvenuto e stava piangendo.

    Ho aspettato 45 minuti nel parcheggio e alla fine Dija è tornata, sempre con il bambino il cui braccio era nelle condizioni di prima, tenuto assieme da una steccatura di fortuna. Pochi passi dietro ai due, camminava la madre piangendo lentamente nelle pieghe del suo velo. Appena arrivata nella sala per le emergenze, aveva spiegato di cosa si trattasse, mentre il medico di servizio sarcasticamente le chiedeva se fosse lei il dottore.

    Dija aveva rimarcato le condizioni del braccio, ma il medico, soccorso da un nuovo collega, aveva disposto che prima era necessario fare una radiografia, e il radiografo era a casa. Disse che avevano provato a telefonargli, ma nessuno rispondeva al suo cellulare. Una volta rintracciato il radiografo, ci saremmo dovuti recare ad un'altra clinica, perché la loro era sfornita del gesso per immobilizzare il braccio. A questo punto, riaccompagnato il radiografo a casa, avremmo dovuto riportare il bambino a Grachanica per le cure del caso.

    Nessuno aveva l'indirizzo del dottore che avremmo dovuto rintracciare, sapevamo solo che viveva nei pressi di Kisnica. Abbiamo incrociato diversi pedoni per avere informazioni e 20 minuti dopo abbiamo raggiunto casa sua. Nel cortile di fronte a casa una donna, presumibilmente sua moglie, stava spazzando e vistasi arrivare incontro un gruppo di zingari con un ragazzo ferito in gravi condizioni, ci ha richiuso il cancello in faccia dicendo che non aveva idea di dove fosse suo marito, né di quando sarebbe tornato.

    Di solito, ho una soluzione per ogni cosa. Dopo 5 anni di Kosovo, conosco l'ambiente in cui devo lavorare. Ma questa volta non mi veniva in mente niente da fare.

    Il bambino era ripiombato nel coma. I genitori piangevano silenziosamente. Dija a questo punto è letteralmente esplosa: Tornando all'ospedale, abbiamo intravisto un jeep svedese della KFOR, davanti a un monastero ortodosso. Consequently, we examined the pigmentation of Mourning Doves encountered in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, and classified the age and sex of all individuals.

    One adult male Mourning Dove had unusually light coloration of some feathers and the upper mandible. This pigmentation is consistent with partial albinism. This was the only individual out of 10, examined that appeared to be albinistic. This low incidence rate of albinism supports the conclusion that this condition is relatively rare in Mourning Doves Mirarchi Fairness and Reciprocity in the Hawk- Dove Game.

    We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk- Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field Using fecal glucocorticoids for stress assessment in Mourning Doves. Fecal glucocorticoid assays provide a potentially useful, noninvasive means to study physiological responses of wildlife to various stressors.

    The objective of our study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura feces. We validated the assay using standard procedures e. We conducted adrenocorticotropin ACTH challenge experiments to validate the assay's ability to determine biologically important changes in fecal glucocorticoids.

    Fecal glucocorticoid levels increased significantly approximately hr after administration of ACTH at 50 IU per kg body mass to wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. In contrast, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites did not increase in control birds, birds that received saline injections, or a lower dose of ACTH 1 IU per kg body mass. Variation in overall fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels may have been influenced by season and the length of time birds were held in captivity.

    Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses, in combination with demographic information, may have considerable utility for monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Mourning Dove populations.

    From Galapagos doves to passerines: Spillover of Haemoproteus multipigmentatus. Full Text Available Haemoproteus Haemoproteus multipigmentatus, a haemosporidian parasite thought to be specific to columbiform birds, was detected in passeriform birds on Santiago Island in the Galapagos archipelago.

    We surveyed birds along an altitudinal gradient on the islands of Santa Cruz, Isabela and Santiago between June and July Molecular screening of individuals from 25 species of endemic and introduced birds revealed clusters of passerine birds positive for H.

    However, no gametocytes were found in the blood smears of positive passerines, suggesting that these species are not competent hosts for the parasite. All 31 doves captured were positive and gametocytes were found upon microscopic examination of all thin blood smears averaging gametocytes per 10, erythrocytes.

    These findings indicate parasite spillover from doves to passerines, but that passerines are possibly not competent hosts for further parasite transmission. The endemic Galapagos dove acts as a reservoir host for the introduced H.

    We report on these findings because parasites can have large effects on individual host populations and on the ecology of a community, but may go undetected.

    Haemoproteus Haemoproteus multipigmentatus , a haemosporidian parasite thought to be specific to columbiform birds, was detected in passeriform birds on Santiago Island in the Galapagos archipelago. Trichomonosis in a free-living Stock Dove Columba oenas.

    A huge buccal nodular lesion caused an occlusion of the esophagus and an external swelling. The bone of the mandibula was already softened. Theories on metaphors, intertextuality and Conceptual Blending are applied to show how Gustava Brandt gives an interpretation of the holy spirit as a messenger of love where love is both burning and purifying.

    Landscape correlates along mourning dove call-count routes in Mississippi. Mourning dove Zenaida macroura call-count surveys in Mississippi, USA, suggest declining populations.

    We used available mourning dove call-count data to evaluate long-term mourning dove habitat relationships. We characterized landscape structure and composition within 1. Habitat classes included agriculture, forest, urban, regeneration stands, wetland, and woodlot.

    We used Akaike's Information Criterion to select the best candidate model. Percent agriculture was positively correlated with relative dove abundance.

    Interestingly, we found a negative relationship between edge density and dove abundance. Researchers should conduct future research on dove nesting patterns in Mississippi and threshold levels of edge necessary to maximize dove density.

    During the last 20 years, Mississippi lost more than , ha of cropland while forest cover represented largely by pine Pinus taeda plantations increased by more than , ha. Our results suggest observed localized declines in mourning dove abundance in Mississippi may be related to the documented conversion of agricultural lands to pine plantations.

    Upper digestive tract trichomoniasis in mourning doves and other birds. This paper, while partially a review of previously published reports from North America, presents many new records on the occurrence of Trichomonas gallinae in North American columbiform birds. Evidence is presented that the. An extensive epizootic is reported involving several thousand eastern mourning doves in the Southeastern States during the summer of Although probably the chief means of transmission is from. Some strains may kill almost every recipient, while others, though they readily infect, never produce the slightest discomfort or pathology.

    Nonlethal infections produce an immunity to all strains tested. In some cases, however, when these double-strain infections are further inoculated into. The mechanism by which this virulence acts in the blrds is undoubtedly an important factor in determining the morbidity or mortality that may occur in a population. The prevalence of trichomoniasis in native pigeons and doves presents many practical as well as academic problems.

    Ultimate application of control measures, evenon an experimental basis, must await further knowledge of many more basic facts. Survival of Trichomonas gallinae in white-winged dove carcasses.

    Survival of Trichomonas gallinae was examined in white-winged dove Zenaida asiatica carcasses to assess whether birds that have been dead up to 8 hr can be sampled reliably for this protozoan. Carcasses of T.

    The experiment was repeated with another carcasses of T. Results suggest live T. The ability for T. Haemoproteus, a blood parasite, in domestic pigeons and mourning doves in Maryland. The occurrence of Haemoproteus in pigeons throughout the world and in mourning doves in the United States is reviewed. Haemoproteus has previously been reported only once from pigeons in Maryland. During this study it was found in all of 18 pigeons from one area but in none of 12 from an adjacent area.

    No infections were found in 90 Maryland mourning doves. All of the 10 mourning doves from Florida were infected whereas 60 nestlings from Texas and Mississippi had no parasites. None was found in nestling white-winged doves from Texas.

    Studies on the ontogeny of Streptopelia senegalensis aegyptiaca latham, Full Text Available In the post hatching stage of the chondrocranium of Streptopelia , resorption of the intertrabecular bar can now be observed along its whole length.

    It is most conspicuous in the anterior tip of the prenasal process. The nasal septum is affected by the resorption process.

    It is now a thin plate. Anteriorly, there is no evidence for the formation of a fenestra septi nasi. The dorsal border of the nasal septum merges with the parietotectal roof above it and with the medial walls of the cupolae.

    The development of a well chondrified blunt process projecting freely backwards from the posterior margin of the vestibular solum nasi at a point that lies in close vicinity to the intertrabecular bar.

    The postprofundal process shows an upward elongation. The processus paraseptalis posterior becomes much more developed. Head crests are important display structures in wild bird species and are also common in domesticated lineages. Many breeds of domestic rock pigeon Columba livia have crests of reversed occipital feathers, and this recessive trait is associated with a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of EphB2 Ephrin receptor B2.

    The domestic ringneck dove Streptopelia risoria also has a recessive crested morph with reversed occipital feathers, and interspecific crosses between crested doves and pigeons produce crested offspring, suggesting a similar genetic basis for this trait in both species.

    We therefore investigated EphB2 as a candidate for the head crest phenotype of ringneck doves and identified a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain that is significantly associated with the crested morph. This mutation is over amino acid positions away from the crest mutation found in rock pigeons, yet both mutations are predicted to negatively affect the function of ATP-binding pocket.

    We conclude that head crests are associated with different mutations in the same functional domain of the same gene in two different columbid species, thereby representing striking evolutionary convergence in morphology and molecules.

    Yue Joseph Wang named Grant A. Dove Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Discovery and characterization of the first genuine avian leptin gene in the rock dove Columba livia. Leptin, the key regulator of mammalian energy balance, has been at the center of a great controversy in avian biology for the last 15 years since initial reports of a putative leptin gene LEP in chickens. Searching the Sequence-Read-Archive database revealed leptin transcripts, in the dove 's liver, with 2 noncoding exons preceding 2 coding exons.

    Sequence alignment of the dove leptin with orthologous leptins indicated that it consists of a leader peptide 21 amino acids; aa followed by the mature protein aa , which has a putative structure typical of 4-helical-bundle cytokines except that it is 12 aa longer than human leptin. Extra residues 10 aa were located within the loop between 2 5'-helices, interrupting the amino acid motif that is conserved in tetrapods and considered essential for activation of leptin receptor LEPR but not for receptor binding per se.

    Providing tools to study energy-balance control at an evolutionary perspective, our original demonstration of leptin signaling in dove predicts a more ancient role of leptin in growth and reproduction in birds, rather than appetite control. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas.

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves Zenaida asiatica , however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years.

    We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during We banded 60, white-winged doves , recovered 2, bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured known-age birds between and White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata 0.

    Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. Breeding and multiple waves of primary molt in common ground doves of coastal Sinaloa. For adult Common Ground Doves from Sinaloa we demonstrate that the primaries are a single molt series, which sometimes feature two in one case three waves of feather replacement.

    Such stepwise primary replacement is found in many large birds but, at 40 g, this dove is much the smallest species reported to have multiple waves of replacement proceeding through its primaries simultaneously. Pre-breeding juvenile Common Ground Doves never feature two waves of primary replacement.

    Juveniles usually have more than two adjacent feathers growing simultaneously and replace their primaries in about days. In contrast adults, which extensively overlap molt and breeding, usually grow just a single primary at a time, and require at least days to replace their primaries. Molt arrests are thought to drive the generation of new waves of primary replacement in a diversity of large birds. For adult Common Ground Doves , we found molt arrests to be strongly associated with active crop glands, suggesting that the demands of parental care cause arrests in primary replacement in this dove.

    For those adults with two primary molt waves, initiation of an inner wave was most frequently observed once the outer wave had reached P Thus, unlike reports for large birds, Common Ground Doves usually suppress the initiation of a new wave of molt starting at P1 when the preceding wave arrests before reaching the distal primaries.

    This assures that relatively fresh inner primaries are not replaced redundantly, overcoming a serious flaw in stepwise molting in large birds Rohwer, Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas.

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves Zenaida asiatica banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding.

    Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels.

    Full Text Available For adult Common Ground Doves from Sinaloa we demonstrate that the primaries are a single molt series, which sometimes feature two in one case three waves of feather replacement. Mourning dove Zenaida macroura wing-whistles may contain threat-related information for con- and hetero-specifics.

    Distinct acoustic whistles are associated with the wing-beats of many doves , and are especially noticeable when doves ascend from the ground when startled. I thus hypothesized that these sounds may be used by flock-mates as cues of potential danger.

    Following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls, conspecifics and heterospecifics startled and increased vigilance more than after playbacks of other sounds. Also, the latency to return to feeding was greater following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls than following playbacks of other sounds. These results suggest that both conspecifics and heterospecifics may attend to dove wing-whistles in decisions related to antipredator behaviors.

    Whether the sounds of dove wing-whistles are intentionally produced signals warrants further testing. Reduction in courtship behavior induced by DDE in male ringed turtle doves. The effects of p,p? Pairs of doves were placed in cages for Total amount of time spent displaying courtship behavior and bow-coo frequency were analyzed through video tape recording The ppm diet did not affect bow-coo frequency and total activity time at days but did cause a significant reduction in courtship behavior during the The DDE residues found in the male Ringed Turtle Doves showing reduced courtship behavior were lower than residues found in many species of birds that have shown reproductive failures in the wild.

    Erebus contain a dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystem DOVE and represent a deep biosphere habitat that can provide insight into microbial communities that utilize energy sources other than photosynthesis.

    The community assembly and role of fungi in these environments remains largely unknown. However, these habitats could be relatively easily contaminated during human visits.

    The species diversity was greater than has been found in the nearby McMurdo Dry Valleys oligotrophic soil. These fungi are associated with skin surfaces of animals and require high lipid content for growth, indicating that contamination may have occurred through the few and episodic human visits in this particular cave. These findings highlight the importance of fungi to DOVE environments as well as their potential use for identifying contamination by humans.

    The latter offers compelling evidence suggesting more strict management of these valuable research areas. Novel role of insulin in the regulation of glucose excretion by mourning doves Zenaida macroura. In mammals, insulin primarily lowers plasma glucose P Glu by increasing its uptake into tissues.

    Studies have also shown that insulin lowers P Glu in mammals by modulating glomerular filtration rate GFR. Birds have naturally high P Glu and, although insulin administration significantly decreases glucose concentrations, birds are resistant to insulin-mediated glucose uptake into tissues. Since prior work has not examined the effects of insulin on GFR in birds, the purpose of the present study was to assess whether insulin can augment renal glucose excretion and thereby lower P Glu.

    Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that insulin lowers P Glu in birds by augmenting GFR, as estimated by inulin clearance C In. Adult mourning doves Zenaida macroura were used as experimental animals.

    Doves were anesthetized and the brachial vein was cannulated for administration of [ 14 C]-inulin and insulin and the brachial artery was cannulated for blood collections. Ureteral urine was collected via a catheter inserted into the cloaca. These data demonstrate a significant role for insulin in modulating GFR in mourning doves , which may in part explain the lower P Glu measured following insulin administration. Perinatal intimate partner violence IPV is common and has significant negative health outcomes for mothers and infants.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an IPV intervention in reducing violence among abused women in perinatal home visiting programs. This assessor-blinded multisite randomized control trial of women experiencing perinatal IPV was conducted from to in U.

    All participants were screened for IPV and referred appropriately. All models accounted for age and maternal depression as covariates. The DOVE intervention was effective in decreasing IPV and is brief, thereby facilitating its incorporation within well-woman and well-child care visits, as well as home visiting programs, while satisfying recommendations set forth in the Affordable Care Act for IPV screening and brief counseling. Three weeds Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important.

    This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods. Avian thermoregulation in the heat: Birds in subtropical deserts face significant thermoregulatory challenges because environmental temperatures regularly exceed avian body temperature.

    To understand the differing susceptibility of desert birds to increasing temperatures, we examined thermoregulatory performance and estimated heat tolerance limits HTLs for three Sonoran Desert nesting bird species - Gambel's quail, mourning doves and white-winged doves.

    Gambel's quail maintained low resting metabolic rates and low rates of evaporative water loss at their T uc 0. Mourning doves and white-winged doves maintained low resting metabolic rates 0. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. The Hawk- Dove game in phenotypically homogeneous and heterogeneous populations of finite dimension. The Hawk- Dove game played between individuals in populations of finite dimension is analyzed by means of a stochastic model.

    We take into account both cases when all individuals in the population are either phenotypically homogeneous or heterogeneous. A strategy in the model is a gene representing the probability of playing the Hawk strategy.

    Individual interactions at the microscopic level are described by a genetic algorithm where evolution results from the interplay among selection, mutation, drift and cross-over of genes. We show that the behavioral patterns observed at the macroscopic level can be reproduced as the emergent result of individual interactions governed by the rules of the Hawk- Dove game at the microscopic level. We study how the results of the genetic algorithm compare with those obtained in evolutionary game theory, finding that, although genes continuously change both their presence and frequency in the population over time, the population average behavior always achieves stationarity and, when this happens, the final average strategy played in the population oscillates around the evolutionarily stable strategy in the homogeneous population case or the neutrally stable set in the heterogeneous population case.

    Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators. Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove Columba livia flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of individually marked birds, were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring. Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators.

    I found birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different.

    Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict: Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk- dove game.

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed.

    The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk- dove. The Owl and the Dove: Local non-governmental organisations in conflict-torn countries find themselves in rapidly changing circumstances. This calls for flexibility and the capacity to learn.

    Locally appropriate ways to deal with conflict are needed but difficult to find. Peacebuilders the dove face various constraints. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove Geopelia humeralis from the zoo of Clères, France.

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove Geopelia humeralis found dead at the zoo of Clères France. The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi In this paper I study the engagement of German ornithologists with the Collared Dove , a bird species of Asian origin that spread massively throughout Central Europe in the s and s.

    Never before had the spread of a single species attracted so much attention from European ornithologists. Ornithologists were not only fascinated by the exotic origin of the bird, but even more so by the unprecedented rapidity of its expansion. As it is argued in the paper, the advent of the bird created an outstanding opportunity for ornithologists to study the process of biogeographic range expansion. The paper traces how knowledge on the dove 's expansion took shape in the social, discursive, and material practices of a large-scale observation campaign of German ornithologists both amateurs and academics.

    The paper also argues that ornithologists' observation practices have contributed to the construction of a benevolent cultural image of the Collared Dove. This sets the case of the Collared Dove apart from many recent debates in which newly arriving species have been framed as a threat to biodiversity. The paper contributes both to a historical understanding of scientific fieldwork as well as of the role of scientific knowledge in the shaping of cultural meanings of animals.

    The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. Functional mapping of neural sites mediating prolactin-induced hyperphagia in doves.

    Microinjections of prolactin PRL into the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus VMN or the preoptic area POA have been previously shown to increase food intake and body weight in ring doves.

    Food intake of cannulated male doves in the mapping study was monitored daily during a 6 day baseline period, an initial 4 day treatment period, a day post-treatment recovery period, and a second 4 day treatment period.

    No significant changes in food intake across baseline, vehicle, post-treatment, or PRL treatment periods were observed in birds with injection sites in the lateral POA, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus PVN , or the medial-basal hypothalamic region between the tuberal hypothalamus TU and VMN.

    Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystems DOVEs in the earth's crust may host substantial biomass sustained by chemolithoautotrophic metabolic reactions.

    It may serve as the base of the foodweb at the surface via hydrothermal circulation, venting pore fluids, cold seeps or gases, and offer a means for primary carbon fixation. When compared to other crustal oligotrophic environments, DOVEs are particularly relevant due to their considerable reductive potential, high permeability and the substantial chemical exchange facilitated by their hydrothermal systems. Most of the ice caves on Mt Erebus are relatively shallow and illuminated by natural light, but some are deep enough to afford complete darkness.

    Fumarole gases forming these caves are mostly atmospheric, enriched with water vapor and CO2. Both Warren caves were completely dark, while Harry's Dream received continuous indirect light during the Austral summer, and offered a control to the two dark caves. The composition of the resident microbial communities was assessed using 16S rRNA and ITS libraries, while metabolic and functional characteristics were analyzed by culturing.

    The latter results are presented by Anitori et al. The three cave soils displayed very low Warren, Warren West or moderate division-level diversity, with distinct communities in each environment. Acidobacteria was the only phylum detected in all three caves, and was a major component of each library. The phototroph-containing phyla Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Chlorophyta latter eukaryotic were only seen in Harry's Dream. A number of phyla whose members are known to oxidize Mn II or Fe.

    Doves and hawks in economics revisited: An evolutionary quantum game theory based analysis of financial crises.

    The last financial and economic crisis demonstrated the dysfunctional long-term effects of aggressive behaviour in financial markets. Yet, evolutionary game theory predicts that under the condition of strategic dependence a certain degree of aggressive behaviour remains within a given population of agents.

    The paper picks up this aspect. Through the extension of the well-known hawk- dove game by a quantum approach, we can show that dependent on entanglement, evolutionary stable strategies also can emerge, which are not predicted by the classical evolutionary game theory and where the total economic population uses a non-aggressive quantum strategy.

    La Planificación estratégica de Dove y su relación con las Lovemarks. Recoge su situación interna así como la situación del entorno en el que se encuentra.

    Finalmente, se habla de la Em muitos momentos, a mulher pode se sentir como que orientada por um manual de comportamento social, papel agora exercido pela publicidade. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a campanha intitulada Real beleza Dove , buscando respostas para o seguinte problema: Campanha pela Real Beleza.

    Serological survey of infectious bursal diseases virus antibodies in Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia Gmelin Columbidae, Columbiformes. Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove ", the Columba livia Gmelin, is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers.

    The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed.

    The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules.

    The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti Temminck, Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of hemosporidian parasites in birds of Socorro Island, México, and their role in the re-introduction of the Socorro dove Zenaida graysoni.

    The Socorro dove Zenaida graysoni , endemic to Socorro Island, was last reported in the wild in Fortunately, the species has been propagated in zoos in Europe and the United States, and plans are under way to re-introduce it to its native habitat.

    This will be the first known attempt to return a bird species extinct in the wild to its ancestral island. In order to assess the disease threats the Socorro dove may face, the avifauna of Socorro Island, with a specific focus on Socorro ground doves Columbina passerina socorroensis and mourning doves Zenaida macroura , as well as Socorro doves in captivity, were screened for blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium , Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Trypanosoma spp.

    We found Haemoproteus spp. Here, we report the phylogenetic analysis of 19 distinct lineages of Haemoproteus spp. Microscopic examination revealed 1 mourning dove infected with Plasmodium Haemamoeba , thus underscoring the importance of using both PCR and microscopy when analyzing avian blood samples for hemosporidian parasites. The study confirms that the Socorro dove will most likely be exposed to Haemoproteus spp.

    A monitoring program for both birds and vectors should be implemented to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium sp. Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove Zenaida macroura feathers. Dynamic changes in integumentary color occur in cases as diverse as the neurologically controlled iridiphores of cephalopod skin and the humidity-responsive cuticles of longhorn beetles.

    By contrast, feather colors are generally assumed to be relatively static, changing by small amounts only over periods of months. However, this assumption has rarely been tested even though structural colors of feathers are produced by ordered nanostructures that are analogous to those in the aforementioned dynamic systems. Feathers are neither innervated nor vascularized and therefore any color change must be caused by external stimuli.

    Thus, we here explore how feathers of iridescent mourning doves Zenaida macroura respond to a simple stimulus: To understand the mechanistic basis of this change, we used electron microscopy to examine macro- and nanostructures before and after treatment. After treatment, the most striking morphological difference was a twisting of colored barbules that exposed more of their surface area for reflection, explaining the observed increase in brightness.

    These results suggest that some plumage colors may be more malleable than previously thought, leading to new avenues for research on dynamic plumage color. Published by Elsevier GmbH. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk- dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices. If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off status differentiation.

    The worst financial outcome occurs when both players choose the hawk strategy status confrontation. Ninety-eight undergraduate students 42 men provided saliva samples and played ten rounds of the hawk- dove game with another same-sex participant. In support of the hypothesis that testosterone is related to status concern, individuals higher in basal testosterone made more hawk decisions - decisions that harmed the other player.

    Acute decreases in cortisol were also associated with more hawk decisions. There was some empirical support for the dual-hormone hypothesis as well: There were no significant sex differences in these hormonal effects. The present findings align with theories of hormones and status-seeking behavior at the individual level, but they also open up new avenues for research on hormone profiles at the collective level.

    Our results suggest that the presence of two or more high-testosterone members increases the likelihood of status confrontations over a limited resource that can undermine collective outcomes. The hawk- dove game in a sexually reproducing species explains a colourful polymorphism of an endangered bird.

    The hawk- dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive 'hawks' and peaceful ' doves ', with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population.

    Thus, the applicability of game-theoretic arguments to real populations might be contested. Here, we show that the head-colour polymorphism of red and black Gouldian finches Erythrura gouldiae provides a real-life example. The aggressive red morph is behaviourally dominant and successfully invades black populations, but when red 'hawks' become too common, their fitness is severely compromised via decreased parental ability.

    We also investigate the effects of real-life deviations, particularly sexual reproduction, from the simple original game, which assumed asexual reproduction. A protected polymorphism requires mate choice to be sufficiently assortative. Assortative mating is adaptive for individuals because of genetic incompatibilities affecting hybrid offspring fitness, but by allowing red 'hawks' to persist, it also leads to significantly reduced population sizes.

    Because reductions in male contributions to parental care are generally known to lead to lower population productivity in birds, we expect zero-sum competition to often have wide ranging population consequences. Full Text Available For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species.

    In the Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata, perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range nm. The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis hue, chroma and brightness show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females.

    The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection e. The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication.

    Ultrastructural characterization of the pulmonary cellular defences in the lung of a bird, the rock dove , Columba livia. The presence of FARMs in the atria and infundibula was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.

    The respiratory system has developed several cellular defence lines that include surface macrophages, epithelial, subepithelial and interstitial phagocytes, and pulmonary intravascular macrophages PIMs. The purported high susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases, a state that has largely been deduced from morbidities and mortalities of commercial birds, and which has chiefly been attributed to paucity of the FARMs, is not supported by the present observations.

    A Dragon and a Dove? This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: It concludes that although there are empirical grounds behind these stereotypes, Chinese and European trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa are becoming more similar, partly due to a more hawkish European stance.

    Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves. Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin PRL and corticosterone CORT levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance.

    We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding.

    Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

    The hawk— dove game in a sexually reproducing species explains a colourful polymorphism of an endangered bird. The hawk— dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations.

    Increased STAT5 signaling in the ring dove brain in response to prolactin administration and spontaneous elevations in prolactin during the breeding cycle. Prolactin acts on target cells in the central nervous system CNS to stimulate behavioral changes associated with parental care in birds, but the signaling mechanisms that mediate these actions have not been characterized.

    To assess the importance of this pathway in prolactin-sensitive target cells in the avian brain, we measured changes in activated phosphorylated STAT5 pSTAT5 in the forebrain of female ring doves sampled as plasma prolactin levels change during the breeding cycle and in prolactin-treated, non-breeding females. The anatomical distribution of cells exhibiting pSTAT5 immunoreactivity in dove brain closely paralleled the distribution of prolactin receptors in this species.

    The density of pSTAT5 immunoreactive pSTAT5-ir cells were highest in the preoptic area, the suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the lateral and tuberal hypothalamic regions, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum.

    Similar differences were observed between prolactin-treated and vehicle-treated females in all three of the forebrain regions that were compared. We conclude that JAK2-STAT5 signaling is strongly activated in response to prolactin stimulation in the ring dove brain and could potentially mediate some of the centrally-mediated behavioral effects of this hormone.

    Phenology changes in the mayfly Ephemera danica in response to water temperature variations in the River Dove , UK. Water temperature in rivers is critical to aquatic life. Climate and environmental change can elevate river temperatures to levels that stress fish, but impacts on other aquatic organisms are not well understood.

    In particular, rising temperatures are expected to alter the phenology of aquatic insects at levels substantially below those required to stress fish species. The phenology of the mayfly Ephemera danica, a large burrowing species that is widespread throughout Europe, is known to be sensitive to temperature change. To assess the temporal and spatial variability in mayfly emergence, E. The emergence of E. However, after particularly warm summers in Beresford Dale, E.

    As a result, E. Changes to insect phenology are significant because populations with a one-year cycle are potentially more vulnerable to adverse weather when the majority of the population is in terrestrial form. Also, altering the growth, development and size of insects affects reproductive success with implications for population dynamics.

    After summarising his early academic career, he discusses his time at the Bank of England and the formation of UK monetary policy. This leads on to a survey of his later experiences in returning to academia and his analysis of foreign exchange markets and central bank autonomy. The movements of foreign exchange markets have been thought to react upon the arrival of news concerning changes in monetary policy.

    However, close examination of the US forex market does not show any significant fluctuations in reaction to particular news disclosures. Economic news with pre-announced release dates have been proven to produce jumps in volatility within minutes of disclosure. The use of high frequency data at given intervals has been shown to produce price spikes and subsidence after a few minutes.

    Market fluctuations, Economic news, Volatility, Foreign exchange markets. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves Columba livia treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments. Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination.

    Studies of lead accumulation in U. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned. The present study was made on four rock dove Columbia livia populations: Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: Lead levels were determined in two tissues: The study focused on the following three items: The influence of vegetation structure on bird communities in a Karoo The commonest species nesting in gardens during this study was the Cape Sparrow Passer melanurus , followed by the Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis , and Greater Striped Swallow Hirundo cucullata.

    Spur-winged Plover, Vanellus spinosus, crustaceans, insects, worms, Invertebrate, 1. Great Snipe, Gallinago media, crustaceans, worms, insects, Invertebrate, 0.

    Red-eyed Dove , Streptopelia semitorquata, seeds, grains, Granivore, 1. White Rumped Swift 3. One hundred and ninety five wild birds consisting of 50 intermediate egrets Mesophoyr intermedius , 49 buffalo weavers. Bubalornis albirostris , 46 laughing doves Streptopelia senegalensis and 50 speckled pigeons.

    Columba guinea were sampled. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove Streptopelia senegalensis were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume PCV , red blood cell count A survey of avifauna and vegetation communities in Hadejia-Nguru Two globally threatened species namely, European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur and Pallid harrier Circus macrourus were also recorded.

    Of the 54 species, 20 were Intra-African migrants and 34 Palearctic winters including two globally threatened species; the European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur and Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus.

    Effectiveness of a brief school-based body image intervention ' Dove Confident Me: Single Session' when delivered by teachers and researchers: Results from a cluster randomised controlled trial. This study evaluated a min single session school-based body image intervention Dove Confident Me: Single Session , and investigated if delivery could be task-shifted to teachers.

    Body image, risk factors, and psychosocial and disordered eating outcomes were assessed 1-week pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and Multilevel mixed-models showed post-intervention improvements for intervention students relative to control in body esteem TL; girls only , negative affect TL , dietary restraint TL; girls only , eating disorder symptoms TL , and life engagement TL; RL.

    Awareness of sociocultural pressures increased at post-intervention TL. Effects were small-medium in size ds 0. There were no significant differences between conditions at post or follow-up on body satisfaction, appearance comparisons, teasing, appearance conversations and self-esteem.

    The intervention had short-term benefits for girls' body image and dietary restraint, and for eating disorder symptoms and some psychosocial outcomes among girls and boys. A multi-session version of the intervention is likely to be necessary for sustained improvements. Teachers can deliver this intervention effectively with minimal training, indicating broader scale dissemination is feasible.

    Published by Elsevier Ltd.. High prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in wild columbids across western and southern Europe. Avian trichomonosis is known as a widespread disease in columbids and passerines, and recent findings have highlighted the pathogenic character of some lineages found in wild birds. Trichomonosis can affect wild bird populations including endangered species, as has been shown for Mauritian pink pigeons Nesoenas mayeri in Mauritius and suggested for European turtle doves Streptopelia turtur in the UK.

    However, the disease trichomonosis is caused only by pathogenic lineages of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae. Therefore, understanding the prevalence and distribution of both potentially pathogenic and non-pathogenic T. We examined samples from four wild columbid species for Trichomonas infection and determined the genetic lineages.

    We found seven different lineages, including four lineages present in columbids in the UK, one lineage already described from Spain and three new lineages, one of those found in a single turtle dove migrating through Italy and another one found in a breeding stock dove. Generally, turtle doves showed high prevalence of Trichomonas infection. Both findings are worrying for these columbid. Luoghi dove la gente abita. Questo articolo si propone di documentare e leggere criticamente il fenomeno delle mostre negli spazi domestici dagli anni Novanta a oggi, con particolare attenzione alle iniziative private senza fini di lucro esistenti in Italia.

    Science rushes to dove 's service. Sesame is a project of transfer of the BESSY-1 synchrotron from Berlin Germany to Jordan with the aim of starting a scientific cooperation among the researchers of the Middle-East area. The goal is to generate some scientific, technological and economical fallout in this region which has suffered the Israel-Arab conflict.

    This synchrotron radiation facility will find applications in various domains: Gastrointestinal parasites of exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    Brazil has a wide diversity of exotic birds that were brought to this country during the European colonization. These animals are kept in captivity and, in some cases, in inadequate facilities, which may facilitate the introduction of pathogens, including gastrointestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to identify the main gastrointestinal parasites that affect exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. Eggs of Amidostomum sp. This is the first report in Brazil of infection by Ascaridia sp.

    The brownish soil contains a lot of humus and worm cast. The site was divided into three Thescelocichla leucopleurus Swamp palm bulbul. Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul. Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease.

    Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove Columba oenas, rock mountain dove C.

    The ppm diet did not affect bow-coo frequency and total activity time at days but did cause a significant reduction in courtship behavior during the The DDE residues found in the male Ringed Turtle Doves showing reduced courtship behavior were lower than residues found in many species of birds that have shown reproductive failures in the wild. Erebus contain a dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystem DOVE and represent a deep biosphere habitat that can provide insight into microbial communities that utilize energy sources other than photosynthesis.

    The community assembly and role of fungi in these environments remains largely unknown. However, these habitats could be relatively easily contaminated during human visits.

    The species diversity was greater than has been found in the nearby McMurdo Dry Valleys oligotrophic soil. These fungi are associated with skin surfaces of animals and require high lipid content for growth, indicating that contamination may have occurred through the few and episodic human visits in this particular cave. These findings highlight the importance of fungi to DOVE environments as well as their potential use for identifying contamination by humans.

    The latter offers compelling evidence suggesting more strict management of these valuable research areas. Novel role of insulin in the regulation of glucose excretion by mourning doves Zenaida macroura. In mammals, insulin primarily lowers plasma glucose P Glu by increasing its uptake into tissues.

    Studies have also shown that insulin lowers P Glu in mammals by modulating glomerular filtration rate GFR. Birds have naturally high P Glu and, although insulin administration significantly decreases glucose concentrations, birds are resistant to insulin-mediated glucose uptake into tissues. Since prior work has not examined the effects of insulin on GFR in birds, the purpose of the present study was to assess whether insulin can augment renal glucose excretion and thereby lower P Glu.

    Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that insulin lowers P Glu in birds by augmenting GFR, as estimated by inulin clearance C In. Adult mourning doves Zenaida macroura were used as experimental animals.

    Doves were anesthetized and the brachial vein was cannulated for administration of [ 14 C]-inulin and insulin and the brachial artery was cannulated for blood collections. Ureteral urine was collected via a catheter inserted into the cloaca. These data demonstrate a significant role for insulin in modulating GFR in mourning doves , which may in part explain the lower P Glu measured following insulin administration. Perinatal intimate partner violence IPV is common and has significant negative health outcomes for mothers and infants.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an IPV intervention in reducing violence among abused women in perinatal home visiting programs. This assessor-blinded multisite randomized control trial of women experiencing perinatal IPV was conducted from to in U.

    All participants were screened for IPV and referred appropriately. All models accounted for age and maternal depression as covariates. The DOVE intervention was effective in decreasing IPV and is brief, thereby facilitating its incorporation within well-woman and well-child care visits, as well as home visiting programs, while satisfying recommendations set forth in the Affordable Care Act for IPV screening and brief counseling.

    Three weeds Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods. Avian thermoregulation in the heat: Birds in subtropical deserts face significant thermoregulatory challenges because environmental temperatures regularly exceed avian body temperature.

    To understand the differing susceptibility of desert birds to increasing temperatures, we examined thermoregulatory performance and estimated heat tolerance limits HTLs for three Sonoran Desert nesting bird species - Gambel's quail, mourning doves and white-winged doves.

    Gambel's quail maintained low resting metabolic rates and low rates of evaporative water loss at their T uc 0. Mourning doves and white-winged doves maintained low resting metabolic rates 0.

    Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. The Hawk- Dove game in phenotypically homogeneous and heterogeneous populations of finite dimension. The Hawk- Dove game played between individuals in populations of finite dimension is analyzed by means of a stochastic model. We take into account both cases when all individuals in the population are either phenotypically homogeneous or heterogeneous. A strategy in the model is a gene representing the probability of playing the Hawk strategy.

    Individual interactions at the microscopic level are described by a genetic algorithm where evolution results from the interplay among selection, mutation, drift and cross-over of genes. We show that the behavioral patterns observed at the macroscopic level can be reproduced as the emergent result of individual interactions governed by the rules of the Hawk- Dove game at the microscopic level. We study how the results of the genetic algorithm compare with those obtained in evolutionary game theory, finding that, although genes continuously change both their presence and frequency in the population over time, the population average behavior always achieves stationarity and, when this happens, the final average strategy played in the population oscillates around the evolutionarily stable strategy in the homogeneous population case or the neutrally stable set in the heterogeneous population case.

    Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators. Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove Columba livia flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of individually marked birds, were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring.

    Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators. I found birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different.

    Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock.

    Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict: Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk- dove game. A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed.

    The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk- dove. The Owl and the Dove: Local non-governmental organisations in conflict-torn countries find themselves in rapidly changing circumstances. This calls for flexibility and the capacity to learn.

    Locally appropriate ways to deal with conflict are needed but difficult to find. Peacebuilders the dove face various constraints. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove Geopelia humeralis from the zoo of Clères, France. Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove Geopelia humeralis found dead at the zoo of Clères France.

    The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi In this paper I study the engagement of German ornithologists with the Collared Dove , a bird species of Asian origin that spread massively throughout Central Europe in the s and s.

    Never before had the spread of a single species attracted so much attention from European ornithologists. Ornithologists were not only fascinated by the exotic origin of the bird, but even more so by the unprecedented rapidity of its expansion.

    As it is argued in the paper, the advent of the bird created an outstanding opportunity for ornithologists to study the process of biogeographic range expansion. The paper traces how knowledge on the dove 's expansion took shape in the social, discursive, and material practices of a large-scale observation campaign of German ornithologists both amateurs and academics. The paper also argues that ornithologists' observation practices have contributed to the construction of a benevolent cultural image of the Collared Dove.

    This sets the case of the Collared Dove apart from many recent debates in which newly arriving species have been framed as a threat to biodiversity. The paper contributes both to a historical understanding of scientific fieldwork as well as of the role of scientific knowledge in the shaping of cultural meanings of animals. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon.

    The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. Functional mapping of neural sites mediating prolactin-induced hyperphagia in doves. Microinjections of prolactin PRL into the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus VMN or the preoptic area POA have been previously shown to increase food intake and body weight in ring doves.

    Food intake of cannulated male doves in the mapping study was monitored daily during a 6 day baseline period, an initial 4 day treatment period, a day post-treatment recovery period, and a second 4 day treatment period. No significant changes in food intake across baseline, vehicle, post-treatment, or PRL treatment periods were observed in birds with injection sites in the lateral POA, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus PVN , or the medial-basal hypothalamic region between the tuberal hypothalamus TU and VMN.

    Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystems DOVEs in the earth's crust may host substantial biomass sustained by chemolithoautotrophic metabolic reactions.

    It may serve as the base of the foodweb at the surface via hydrothermal circulation, venting pore fluids, cold seeps or gases, and offer a means for primary carbon fixation. When compared to other crustal oligotrophic environments, DOVEs are particularly relevant due to their considerable reductive potential, high permeability and the substantial chemical exchange facilitated by their hydrothermal systems. Most of the ice caves on Mt Erebus are relatively shallow and illuminated by natural light, but some are deep enough to afford complete darkness.

    Fumarole gases forming these caves are mostly atmospheric, enriched with water vapor and CO2. Both Warren caves were completely dark, while Harry's Dream received continuous indirect light during the Austral summer, and offered a control to the two dark caves. The composition of the resident microbial communities was assessed using 16S rRNA and ITS libraries, while metabolic and functional characteristics were analyzed by culturing.

    The latter results are presented by Anitori et al. The three cave soils displayed very low Warren, Warren West or moderate division-level diversity, with distinct communities in each environment.

    Acidobacteria was the only phylum detected in all three caves, and was a major component of each library. The phototroph-containing phyla Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Chlorophyta latter eukaryotic were only seen in Harry's Dream. A number of phyla whose members are known to oxidize Mn II or Fe. Doves and hawks in economics revisited: An evolutionary quantum game theory based analysis of financial crises. The last financial and economic crisis demonstrated the dysfunctional long-term effects of aggressive behaviour in financial markets.

    Yet, evolutionary game theory predicts that under the condition of strategic dependence a certain degree of aggressive behaviour remains within a given population of agents. The paper picks up this aspect. Through the extension of the well-known hawk- dove game by a quantum approach, we can show that dependent on entanglement, evolutionary stable strategies also can emerge, which are not predicted by the classical evolutionary game theory and where the total economic population uses a non-aggressive quantum strategy.

    La Planificación estratégica de Dove y su relación con las Lovemarks. Recoge su situación interna así como la situación del entorno en el que se encuentra. Finalmente, se habla de la Em muitos momentos, a mulher pode se sentir como que orientada por um manual de comportamento social, papel agora exercido pela publicidade. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a campanha intitulada Real beleza Dove , buscando respostas para o seguinte problema: Campanha pela Real Beleza.

    Serological survey of infectious bursal diseases virus antibodies in Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia Gmelin Columbidae, Columbiformes. Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove ", the Columba livia Gmelin, is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers.

    The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules.

    The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti Temminck, Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of hemosporidian parasites in birds of Socorro Island, México, and their role in the re-introduction of the Socorro dove Zenaida graysoni.

    The Socorro dove Zenaida graysoni , endemic to Socorro Island, was last reported in the wild in Fortunately, the species has been propagated in zoos in Europe and the United States, and plans are under way to re-introduce it to its native habitat. This will be the first known attempt to return a bird species extinct in the wild to its ancestral island. In order to assess the disease threats the Socorro dove may face, the avifauna of Socorro Island, with a specific focus on Socorro ground doves Columbina passerina socorroensis and mourning doves Zenaida macroura , as well as Socorro doves in captivity, were screened for blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium , Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Trypanosoma spp.

    We found Haemoproteus spp. Here, we report the phylogenetic analysis of 19 distinct lineages of Haemoproteus spp. Microscopic examination revealed 1 mourning dove infected with Plasmodium Haemamoeba , thus underscoring the importance of using both PCR and microscopy when analyzing avian blood samples for hemosporidian parasites. The study confirms that the Socorro dove will most likely be exposed to Haemoproteus spp.

    A monitoring program for both birds and vectors should be implemented to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium sp. Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove Zenaida macroura feathers. Dynamic changes in integumentary color occur in cases as diverse as the neurologically controlled iridiphores of cephalopod skin and the humidity-responsive cuticles of longhorn beetles.

    By contrast, feather colors are generally assumed to be relatively static, changing by small amounts only over periods of months. However, this assumption has rarely been tested even though structural colors of feathers are produced by ordered nanostructures that are analogous to those in the aforementioned dynamic systems. Feathers are neither innervated nor vascularized and therefore any color change must be caused by external stimuli.

    Thus, we here explore how feathers of iridescent mourning doves Zenaida macroura respond to a simple stimulus: To understand the mechanistic basis of this change, we used electron microscopy to examine macro- and nanostructures before and after treatment.

    After treatment, the most striking morphological difference was a twisting of colored barbules that exposed more of their surface area for reflection, explaining the observed increase in brightness. These results suggest that some plumage colors may be more malleable than previously thought, leading to new avenues for research on dynamic plumage color.

    Published by Elsevier GmbH. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk- dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices.

    If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off status differentiation. The worst financial outcome occurs when both players choose the hawk strategy status confrontation. Ninety-eight undergraduate students 42 men provided saliva samples and played ten rounds of the hawk- dove game with another same-sex participant. In support of the hypothesis that testosterone is related to status concern, individuals higher in basal testosterone made more hawk decisions - decisions that harmed the other player.

    Acute decreases in cortisol were also associated with more hawk decisions. There was some empirical support for the dual-hormone hypothesis as well: There were no significant sex differences in these hormonal effects. The present findings align with theories of hormones and status-seeking behavior at the individual level, but they also open up new avenues for research on hormone profiles at the collective level.

    Our results suggest that the presence of two or more high-testosterone members increases the likelihood of status confrontations over a limited resource that can undermine collective outcomes. The hawk- dove game in a sexually reproducing species explains a colourful polymorphism of an endangered bird.

    The hawk- dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive 'hawks' and peaceful ' doves ', with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population. Thus, the applicability of game-theoretic arguments to real populations might be contested.

    Here, we show that the head-colour polymorphism of red and black Gouldian finches Erythrura gouldiae provides a real-life example. The aggressive red morph is behaviourally dominant and successfully invades black populations, but when red 'hawks' become too common, their fitness is severely compromised via decreased parental ability. We also investigate the effects of real-life deviations, particularly sexual reproduction, from the simple original game, which assumed asexual reproduction.

    A protected polymorphism requires mate choice to be sufficiently assortative. Assortative mating is adaptive for individuals because of genetic incompatibilities affecting hybrid offspring fitness, but by allowing red 'hawks' to persist, it also leads to significantly reduced population sizes. Because reductions in male contributions to parental care are generally known to lead to lower population productivity in birds, we expect zero-sum competition to often have wide ranging population consequences.

    Full Text Available For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species.

    In the Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata, perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range nm. The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis hue, chroma and brightness show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females.

    The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection e. The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication. Ultrastructural characterization of the pulmonary cellular defences in the lung of a bird, the rock dove , Columba livia.

    The presence of FARMs in the atria and infundibula was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The respiratory system has developed several cellular defence lines that include surface macrophages, epithelial, subepithelial and interstitial phagocytes, and pulmonary intravascular macrophages PIMs. The purported high susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases, a state that has largely been deduced from morbidities and mortalities of commercial birds, and which has chiefly been attributed to paucity of the FARMs, is not supported by the present observations.

    A Dragon and a Dove? This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: It concludes that although there are empirical grounds behind these stereotypes, Chinese and European trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa are becoming more similar, partly due to a more hawkish European stance.

    Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves. Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs.

    During breeding, individual variation in prolactin PRL and corticosterone CORT levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand.

    Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding.

    Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort.

    Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves. The hawk— dove game in a sexually reproducing species explains a colourful polymorphism of an endangered bird. The hawk— dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations.

    Increased STAT5 signaling in the ring dove brain in response to prolactin administration and spontaneous elevations in prolactin during the breeding cycle. Prolactin acts on target cells in the central nervous system CNS to stimulate behavioral changes associated with parental care in birds, but the signaling mechanisms that mediate these actions have not been characterized.

    To assess the importance of this pathway in prolactin-sensitive target cells in the avian brain, we measured changes in activated phosphorylated STAT5 pSTAT5 in the forebrain of female ring doves sampled as plasma prolactin levels change during the breeding cycle and in prolactin-treated, non-breeding females.

    The anatomical distribution of cells exhibiting pSTAT5 immunoreactivity in dove brain closely paralleled the distribution of prolactin receptors in this species.

    The density of pSTAT5 immunoreactive pSTAT5-ir cells were highest in the preoptic area, the suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the lateral and tuberal hypothalamic regions, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. Similar differences were observed between prolactin-treated and vehicle-treated females in all three of the forebrain regions that were compared. We conclude that JAK2-STAT5 signaling is strongly activated in response to prolactin stimulation in the ring dove brain and could potentially mediate some of the centrally-mediated behavioral effects of this hormone.

    Phenology changes in the mayfly Ephemera danica in response to water temperature variations in the River Dove , UK. Water temperature in rivers is critical to aquatic life. Climate and environmental change can elevate river temperatures to levels that stress fish, but impacts on other aquatic organisms are not well understood. In particular, rising temperatures are expected to alter the phenology of aquatic insects at levels substantially below those required to stress fish species.

    The phenology of the mayfly Ephemera danica, a large burrowing species that is widespread throughout Europe, is known to be sensitive to temperature change. To assess the temporal and spatial variability in mayfly emergence, E. The emergence of E. However, after particularly warm summers in Beresford Dale, E. As a result, E. Changes to insect phenology are significant because populations with a one-year cycle are potentially more vulnerable to adverse weather when the majority of the population is in terrestrial form.

    Also, altering the growth, development and size of insects affects reproductive success with implications for population dynamics. After summarising his early academic career, he discusses his time at the Bank of England and the formation of UK monetary policy. This leads on to a survey of his later experiences in returning to academia and his analysis of foreign exchange markets and central bank autonomy.

    The movements of foreign exchange markets have been thought to react upon the arrival of news concerning changes in monetary policy. However, close examination of the US forex market does not show any significant fluctuations in reaction to particular news disclosures.

    Economic news with pre-announced release dates have been proven to produce jumps in volatility within minutes of disclosure. The use of high frequency data at given intervals has been shown to produce price spikes and subsidence after a few minutes. Market fluctuations, Economic news, Volatility, Foreign exchange markets. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves Columba livia treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares.

    The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments.

    Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination.

    Studies of lead accumulation in U. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned.

    The present study was made on four rock dove Columbia livia populations: Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: Lead levels were determined in two tissues: The study focused on the following three items: The influence of vegetation structure on bird communities in a Karoo The commonest species nesting in gardens during this study was the Cape Sparrow Passer melanurus , followed by the Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis , and Greater Striped Swallow Hirundo cucullata.

    Spur-winged Plover, Vanellus spinosus, crustaceans, insects, worms, Invertebrate, 1. Great Snipe, Gallinago media, crustaceans, worms, insects, Invertebrate, 0. Red-eyed Dove , Streptopelia semitorquata, seeds, grains, Granivore, 1. White Rumped Swift 3. One hundred and ninety five wild birds consisting of 50 intermediate egrets Mesophoyr intermedius , 49 buffalo weavers.

    Bubalornis albirostris , 46 laughing doves Streptopelia senegalensis and 50 speckled pigeons. Columba guinea were sampled. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove Streptopelia senegalensis were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity.

    At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume PCV , red blood cell count A survey of avifauna and vegetation communities in Hadejia-Nguru Two globally threatened species namely, European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur and Pallid harrier Circus macrourus were also recorded.

    Of the 54 species, 20 were Intra-African migrants and 34 Palearctic winters including two globally threatened species; the European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur and Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus. Effectiveness of a brief school-based body image intervention ' Dove Confident Me: Single Session' when delivered by teachers and researchers: Results from a cluster randomised controlled trial. This study evaluated a min single session school-based body image intervention Dove Confident Me: Single Session , and investigated if delivery could be task-shifted to teachers.

    Body image, risk factors, and psychosocial and disordered eating outcomes were assessed 1-week pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and Multilevel mixed-models showed post-intervention improvements for intervention students relative to control in body esteem TL; girls only , negative affect TL , dietary restraint TL; girls only , eating disorder symptoms TL , and life engagement TL; RL.

    Awareness of sociocultural pressures increased at post-intervention TL. Effects were small-medium in size ds 0. There were no significant differences between conditions at post or follow-up on body satisfaction, appearance comparisons, teasing, appearance conversations and self-esteem. The intervention had short-term benefits for girls' body image and dietary restraint, and for eating disorder symptoms and some psychosocial outcomes among girls and boys. A multi-session version of the intervention is likely to be necessary for sustained improvements.

    Teachers can deliver this intervention effectively with minimal training, indicating broader scale dissemination is feasible. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. High prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in wild columbids across western and southern Europe. Avian trichomonosis is known as a widespread disease in columbids and passerines, and recent findings have highlighted the pathogenic character of some lineages found in wild birds.

    Trichomonosis can affect wild bird populations including endangered species, as has been shown for Mauritian pink pigeons Nesoenas mayeri in Mauritius and suggested for European turtle doves Streptopelia turtur in the UK.

    However, the disease trichomonosis is caused only by pathogenic lineages of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae. Therefore, understanding the prevalence and distribution of both potentially pathogenic and non-pathogenic T. We examined samples from four wild columbid species for Trichomonas infection and determined the genetic lineages. We found seven different lineages, including four lineages present in columbids in the UK, one lineage already described from Spain and three new lineages, one of those found in a single turtle dove migrating through Italy and another one found in a breeding stock dove.

    Generally, turtle doves showed high prevalence of Trichomonas infection. Both findings are worrying for these columbid. Luoghi dove la gente abita. Questo articolo si propone di documentare e leggere criticamente il fenomeno delle mostre negli spazi domestici dagli anni Novanta a oggi, con particolare attenzione alle iniziative private senza fini di lucro esistenti in Italia.

    Science rushes to dove 's service. Sesame is a project of transfer of the BESSY-1 synchrotron from Berlin Germany to Jordan with the aim of starting a scientific cooperation among the researchers of the Middle-East area.

    The goal is to generate some scientific, technological and economical fallout in this region which has suffered the Israel-Arab conflict. This synchrotron radiation facility will find applications in various domains: Gastrointestinal parasites of exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    Brazil has a wide diversity of exotic birds that were brought to this country during the European colonization. These animals are kept in captivity and, in some cases, in inadequate facilities, which may facilitate the introduction of pathogens, including gastrointestinal parasites.

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main gastrointestinal parasites that affect exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. Eggs of Amidostomum sp. This is the first report in Brazil of infection by Ascaridia sp. The brownish soil contains a lot of humus and worm cast. The site was divided into three Thescelocichla leucopleurus Swamp palm bulbul. Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul. Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease.

    Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove Columba oenas, rock mountain dove C. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves.

    Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease. Trichomonad parasite infection in four species of Columbidae in the UK. Trichomonas gallinae is an emerging pathogen in wild birds, linked to recent declines in finch Fringillidae populations across Europe.

    Globally, the main hosts for this parasite are species of Columbidae doves and pigeons ; here we carry out the first investigation into the presence and incidence of Trichomonas in four species of Columbidae in the UK, through live sampling of wild-caught birds and subsequent PCR. Birds were more likely to be infected if the farm provided supplementary food for gamebirds. We found three strains of T. We highlight the importance of increasing our knowledge of the diversity and ecological implications of Trichomonas parasites in order further to understand the sub-clinical impacts of parasite infection.

    Return to Glacier Bay. Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: No signs of disease could be seen in the birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora. Inferring Hawks and Doves from Voting Records.

    In this paper we estimate spatial voting models for the analysis of the voting record of the monetary policy committee of the Bank of England. We use a exible Bayesian approach for estimating such models. A simple modifi cation to the standard spatial model as well as a variety of model.

    Trichomonas gallinae in Mauritian columbids: Although well known as a widespread parasitic disease of columbids and birds of prey, there have been few studies of trichomonosis in populations of wild birds. In Mauritius, trichomonosis has been highlighted as a major threat to an endangered endemic, the Pink Pigeon Neosoenas [Columba] mayeri. In this study, we examined the role that populations of other columbids in Mauritius might be playing as infectious reservoirs of the causal flagellate protozoan, Trichomonas gallinae.

    We screened wild individuals of three columbid species Madagascan Turtle Dove [ Streptopelia picturata], Spotted Dove [ Streptopelia chinensis], and Zebra Dove [Geopelia striata] between September and April We show that T. Full Text Available This is the first report of the digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai infestation in a ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti, captured in a suburban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Gross lesions were not observed and histopathological analysis showed very dilated renal collecting ducts with destruction and flattening of the lining epithelial cells, without inflammatory reaction.

    The pathological findings were compared to those previously reported for P. Os achados patológicos foram comparados aos anteriormente relatados para P. Seasonal habitat requirements of Lemon Dove Aplopelia larvata The modification of natural habitats requires behavioural plasticity, which may be challenging for 'specialist' species. Quantifying habitat requirements and behavioural responses of specialists to landscape transformation is thus a priority for baseline data to inform conservation practices.

    Using camera-trap surveys of the Characterizing monetary policy regime switches in India. The past two decades have witnessed a worldwide move by emerging markets to adopt explicit or implicit inflation targeting regimes.

    A notable and often discussed exception to this trend, of course, is China which follows a pegged exchange rate regime supported by capital controls. Another major exception is India. It is not clear how to characterize the monetary regime or identify the nominal monetary anchor in India. Is central bank policy in India following a predictable rule that is heavil The Black African experience Dove The small number of black African BA cricket players progressing through the talent development pathways to the elite level has been a constant concern for Cricket South Africa CSA.

    Previous attempts to accelerate the development of BA players have not produced the desired results. A description of the Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands.

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in by the U. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys.

    On Tinian, during the three surveys , , and , 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern Gygis alba and Bridled White-eye Zosterops saypani —and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus —were considered relatively stable. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys and , and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species.

    Nest-niche differentiation in two sympatric columbid species from a Mediterranean Tetraclinis woodland: Considerations for forest management.

    Studies of niche partitioning among Columbid species have mainly addressed food habits and foraging activities, while partitioning in relation to nest-niche differentiation has been little studied. Here we investigate whether two sympatric columbid species-Woodpigeon Columba palumbus and Turtle dove Streptopelia turtur -occupy similar niches. A total of 74 nests were monitored: The study, conducted in June , attempted to determine the factors that may play a role in nest-niche differentiation among the two sympatric columbid species in a Moroccan Thuya Tetraclinis articulata forest.

    We used Principal Component Analysis PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA to test the relevance of nest placement, proximity of food resources, forest edge and human presence variables in the nest distribution of the two species. The results show substantial niche segregation in the T. Observed nest-niche partitioning may diminish the potential for competition between these species and enhance opportunities for their coexistence.

    Management policies and practices aimed at ensuring the presence of mixed-sized class of Thuya trees must be prioritized. We recommend additional studies designed to: Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles. Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied.

    The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius.

    I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle- dove , Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove , Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A.

    All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A.

    Molecular identity and heterogeneity of Trichomonad parasites in a closed avian population. Columbids pigeons and doves are the primary host of Trichomonas gallinae, the flagellate protozoon which causes avian trichomoniasis, a widespread, often lethal disease.

    In recent years, research on this important emerging pathogen has been neglected and genetic variation within the parasite has not hitherto been investigated. As a closed oceanic island population with recorded life-history parameters for all birds, this species represents a unique resource for the study of this host-parasite interaction. To investigate genetic variation within T. Comparison of the 5. This confirmed all 24 isolates as T. RAPD genotypes appeared to correlate with geographic distribution and host species, suggesting inter-species transmission and rapid host adaptation by the parasite.

    Possible linkage between neuronal recruitment and flight distance in migratory birds. New neuronal recruitment in an adult animal's brain is presumed to contribute to brain plasticity and increase the animal's ability to contend with new and changing environments.

    During long-distance migration, birds migrating greater distances are exposed to more diverse spatial information. Thus, we hypothesized that greater migration distance in birds would correlate with the recruitment of new neurons into the brain regions involved with migratory navigation. We tested this hypothesis on two Palearctic migrants - reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and turtle doves Streptopelia turtur , caught in Israel while returning from Africa in spring and summer.

    Birds were injected with a neuronal birth marker and later inspected for new neurons in brain regions known to play a role in navigation - the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolateral. Our findings suggest a positive correlation between migration distance and new neuronal recruitment in two brain regions - the hippocampus in reed warblers and nidopallium caudolateral in turtle doves.

    This multidisciplinary approach provides new insights into the ability of the avian brain to adapt to different migration challenges. Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J. Bird population trends since were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in by the U.

    Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

    Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between and on Rota, Mariana Islands. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A. Paul; Banko, Paul C. The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between and , 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey.

    Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the y time series, including the island collared- dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground- dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit- dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca.

    Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from to the late s but returned to s levels by , resulting in an overall stable trend.

    Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in and were similar. Occupancy models of the survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections.

    Based on the survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: The boy with the dove on his shoulder: Ukrainian humor is a particular genre, it resembles tragedy. The importance of the article is reflected in the hit wave of revision and reinterpretation of the post-colonial Soviet literary criticism, literary history, and the literature.

    Dieci anni dopo il Pavillon des Sessions. From hawks and doves to self-consistent games of territorial behavior. Explaining the "prior-residence effect" automatic owner status of individuals who arrived first in an area was one of the very first applications of game theory in animal behavior. These models, however, predict paradoxical solutions where intruders always win, with no satisfactory explanation for the absence of such cases in nature.

    We propose a solution based on new developments in evolutionary game theory. A self-consistent model with feedbacks between individual behavior and population dynamics produces qualitatively different frequency-dependent selection on intruders floaters than on territory owners. Starting with an ancestral population with no respect for ownership, the most likely evolutionary end point is complete or partial respect. Conventional rules of conflict resolution thus can rely on "uncorrelated asymmetries" without differences in resource-holding power or territory value, although they will be strengthened by such differences.

    We also review the empirical literature on animal contests, testing whether asymmetries in resource-holding power are required to explain the observations. Despite much empirical effort, results remain inconclusive, because experiments are often unable to distinguish between the motivation of individuals to fight and the behavioral outcome of a contest.

    To help arrive at conclusive answers, we suggest a standardized empirical approach to quantify prior-residence effects. You Think You Know Ghetto? Measuring student intelligence has been problematic in the United States since standardized testing first began in the early s. The omnipresence of standardized testing in student populations is illustrated by the most popular contemporary tests which are used by some scholars to advance the notion that intelligence differences between whites….

    De tweetalige ontwikkeling van dove kinderen in de Nederlandse Gebarentaal en het Nederlands. A relevant question is what the language proficiency of the children is in these languages. Besides, it is important to know in what way the children. Al ricco e multiforme itinerario biografico, arricchito dal fitto corredo iconografico, segue il prezioso saggio critico Le ali della farfalla Kallima, in cui i due studiosi, Sarah Zappulla Muscarà ed Enzo Zappulla, ripercorrono puntualmente, con lucido acume critico, l'iter compositivo dello scrittore The feeding behaviour of pigeons and doves on sown grain crops Rock Pigeons are capable of removing the tubular florets from the sunflower heads in order to get access to the soft seeds.

    However, since these pigeons only remain for 2—3 weeks, they are probably not responsible for the bulk of the crop damage that sunflower incurs in South Africa. Granivorous paserienes and rodents When Earth observation satellite systems are designed, one typically prefers a sun-synchronous orbit. In effetti, è in grado di adattarsi a più applicazioni con innumerevoli attrezzi appositamente studiati per eseguire più attività. Fra questi troviamo le forche per pallet utili per il carico dei pallet, la fresatrice autolivellante per rimuovere l'intero strato di asfalto, la benna per letame utile per la pulizia di ovili e per il carico di rotoballe e di letame.

    Esiste inoltre la benna spazzatrice raccoglitrice per la pulizia di parcheggi, marciapiedi e altro, il trinciatutto per tagliare e sminuzzare piccoli alberi, la falciatrice rotante, lo spazzaneve, ecc.

    Oltre al classico modello a ruote, alcuni operatori si orientano verso altri modelli come quello cingolato che offre una migliore aderenza al suolo e una maggiore potenza di spinta e scavo.

    Questo consente inoltre, di lavorare negli ambienti più complessi laddove un gommato non avrebbe la forza o la stabilità necessaria. Altri addetti ai lavori si orientano verso la minipala a 4 ruote sterzanti, più adatta ai terreni sdrucciolevoli e ai manti erbosi, o verso quella con cingoli di gomma che offre una migliore trazione e flottazione su terreni difficili e una maggiore stabilità su quelli collinari, ripidi e di difficile accesso.

    Nel mondo delle macchine movimento terra, è la categoria dei compatti che traina la ripresa. Secondo i dati del terzo trimestre , la crescita delle macchine compatte si conferma, registrando il Cerchi un modello usato o nuovo ma non sai quale acquistare? Ti serve un attrezzo polivalente, capace di operare in foresta, su un terreno argilloso, collinare, scosceso o stracolmo di pietre? Seleziona i tuoi criteri. Minipale usate e nuove 4 annunci.

    Ordina per Prezzo IVA escl. L'annuncio che cerchi non esiste più. Ti proponiamo comunque degli annunci che possono interessarti.

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    Video x escort girl a saint etienne Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: During breeding, individual variation in prolactin PRL and corticosterone CORT levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. Ci sono i medici, tra i quali viene riconosciuto da più fonti "un arabo". Akana e dusmana daren te aven ano Dajl Farm — dzanen kaj ka maren pe olensa! Con questo, Winter intende la libertà stilistica dei musicisti zingari, comparata a come si intende la musica folclorica nei termini di armonia, ritmo e improvvisazione. Per oltre 15 anni, Gorolova ha pazientemente lottato con la les sites porno escort dreux. Dai Bouziès, la vita si sgrana al figlio delle "assemblee" alla chiesa evangelica, situata a due porte della culla familiare.
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